Raphidioptera

Fibla hesperica, copyright Thijs Valkenburg.
Belongs within: Neuropterida.
Contains: Baissopteridae, Mesoraphidiidae, Raphidiidae.

The Raphidioptera, snakeflies, are a Holarctic group of predatory insects characterised by a remarkably elongate pronotum giving a appearance of a distinct ‘neck’.

Characters (from Aspöck & Aspöck 1991): Mandibulate, endopterygote Neoptera; antennae multisegmented; compound eyes always present; ocelli present only in Raphidiidae; prothorax elongate; with two pairs of subequal wings; ovipositor long. Larvae terrestrial; with biting mouth-parts and lateral ocelli. Pupae decticous.

<==Raphidioptera [Raphidiida, Raphidiodea]
|  i. s.: Archiinocellia Handlirsch 1910 E02
|           `–*A. oligoneura Handlirsch 1910 E02
|         Arariperaphidia Martins-Neto & Vulcano 1989 E02
|           `–*A. rochai Martins-Neto & Vulcano 1989 E02
|         Erma Navás 1918 [Ermidae] S63
|–Priscaenigmatomorpha EWB18
|    |–Chrysoraphidiidae EWB18
|    `–Priscaenigmatidae AA04
|         |–Priscaenigma Whalley 1985 AA04
|         |    `–*P. obtusa Whalley 1985 E02
|         `–Hondelagia Bode 1953 E02
|              `–*H. reticulata Bode 1953 [=Mesoraphidia reticulata] E02
`–Raphidiomorpha E02
|–Juroraphidiidae EWB18
`–+–Baissopteridae GE05
`–+–Mesoraphidiidae GE05
|–Alloraphidiidae GE05
|    |–Pararaphidia Willmann 1994 E02
|    |    |–P. deserta (Ponomarenko 1988) [=Alloraphidia deserta] E02
|    |    `–P. vitimica (Martynova 1961) [=Proraphidia vitimica, Alloraphidia vitimica] E02
|    |–Archeraphidia Ponomarenko 1988 E02
|    |    |–*A. yakowlewi Ponomarenko 1988 E02
|    |    |–A. baisensis Ponomarenko 1993 E02
|    |    `–A. hosbayari Ponomarenko 1988 E02
|    `–Alloraphidia Carpenter 1967 E02
|         |–*A. dorfi Carpenter 1967 E02
|         |–A. anomala Ren 1997 E02
|         |–A. asiatica Ponomarenko 1993 E02
|         `–A. petrosa Ponomarenko 1988 E02
`–Raphidioidea [Neoraphidioptera, Raphidiina] AA04
|–Raphidiidae AA04
`–Inocelliidae AA04
|  i. s.: Parainocellia Aspöck & Aspöck 1968 AA04
|           |–P. bicolor WHW10
|           `–P. ressli AA91
|         Electrinocellia Engel 1995 E02
|           `–*E. peculiaris (Carpenter 1956) [=Inocellia peculiaris] E02
|         Succinofibla Aspöck & Aspöck 2004 AA04
|           `–*S. aperta Aspöck & Aspöck 2004 AA04
|         Sininocellia Yang 1985 AA04
|–Negha Navás 1916 VM20, AA04
|    `–N. meridionalis TW05
`–+–Inocellia Schneider 1843 VM20, AA04
|    |–I. crassicornis VM20
|    `–I. japonica VM20
`–Fibla Navás 1915 [incl. Burcha Navás 1915, Estoca Navás 1919] E02
|  i. s.: F. erigena (Menge 1856) AA04 [=Raphidia erigena AA04, R. (Inocellia) erigena E02]
|         F. exusta (Cockerell & Custer 1925) AA04 [=Inocellia exusta E02]
|         F. maclachlani (Albarda 1891) VM20, E02 (see below for synonymy)
|         *Estoca’ peyerimhoffi Navás 1919 E02
|–F. (Fibla) AA04
|    |–*F. (F.) hesperica Navás 1915 E02
|    `–F. (F.) carpenteri Engel 1995 AA04
`–F. (Reisserella) Aspöck & Aspöck 1971 [incl. Miofibla Nel 1993] E02
|–F. (*R.) pasiphae Aspöck & Aspöck 1971 [=Inocellia (R.) pasiphae] E02
`–F. (R.) cerdanica (Nel 1993) [=Miofibla cerdanica] E02

Fibla maclachlani (Albarda 1891) VM20, E02 [=Inocellia maclachlani E02, *Burcha maclachlani E02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AA91] Aspöck, H., & U. Aspöck. 1991. Raphidioptera (snake-flies, camelneck-flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 521–524. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[AA04] Aspöck, U., & H. Aspöck. 2004. Two significant new snakeflies from Baltic amber, with discussion on autapomorphies of the order and its included taxa (Raphidioptera). Systematic Entomology 29: 11–19.

[E02] Engel, M. S. 2002. The smallest snakefly (Raphidioptera: Mesoraphidiidae): a new species in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar, with a catalogue of fossil snakeflies. American Museum Novitates 3363: 1–22.

[EWB18] Engel, M. S., S. L. Winterton & L. C. V. Breitkreuz. 2018. Phylogeny and evolution of Neuropterida: where have wings of lace taken us? Annual Review of Entomology 63: 531–551.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[S63] Steinmann, H. 1963. Raphidiopterological studies I. Navasana gen. n. from Hungary, Harraphidia gen. n. from Morocco, new Lesna Nav. and Subilla Nav. species from Europe. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9 (1–2): 183–198.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[VM20] Vasilikopoulos, A., B. Misof, K. Meusemann, D. Lieberz, T. Flouri, R. G. Beutel, O. Niehuis, T. Wappler, J. Rust, R. S. Peters, A. Donath, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Mayer, D. Bartel, A. Böhm, S. Liu, P. Kapli, C. Greve, J. E. Jepson, X. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck. 2020. An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 64.

[WHW10] Winterton, S. L., N. B. Hardy & B. M. Wiegmann. 2010. On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology 35: 349–378.

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