Raphignathoidea

Camerobia sp., from Walter et al. (2009).

Belongs within: Eleutherengonides.
Contains: Cryptognathus, Eupalopsellidae, Eustigmaeus, Stigmaeus, Agistemus, Zetzellia, Raphignathus, Caligonellidae, Neophyllobius.

The Raphignathoidea are a group of often predatory mites, many species of which are found in dry habitats. Members of the group vary from heavily armoured taxa such as the Homocaligidae and Cryptognathus to almost completely non-sclerotised taxa such as Barbutia and the Caligonellidae. Most raphignathoids lack tenent hairs on the leg claws (albeit possessing them on the associated empodia) but the claws are haired in the soil- and litter-dwelling Barbutia. Stigmata, if present, open at the bases of the chelicerae and are associated with simple to highly convoluted peritremes. Both stigmata and peritremes are absent in Homocaligidae, Mecognatha, Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae. Most raphignathoids have two nymphal instars between larva and adult but a tritonymph is also present in Xenocalligonellididae (Walter et al. 2009).

Barbutia species are relatively elongate, soft-bodied mites known from seasonally arid regions of North America and Australia. The Homocaligidae are hemispherical mites found in association with fresh water. Camerobiidae are oval to subcircular mites with very long legs, with the tibia of each leg about three times the length of the tarsus. The Dasythyreidae and Xenocalligonellididae are neotrichous with long setae radiating outwards in a pincushion-like array many times the diameter of the body (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Soft-bodied or well-sclerotised, with a holonotal shield or a series of smaller weakly tanned, reticulate or dimpled dorsal sclerites, rarely without shields; idiosomatic neotrichy present in some families; trichobothria absent; prodorsum usually with 3-4 pairs of setae (si may be absent), rarely neotrichous; 0-2 pairs of ocelli, second pair (postocular organ) sometimes stalked. Cheliceral bases usually swollen, free, adnate, partially fused, or amalgamated into a stylophore, each with a styliform movable digit encased in the sheathlike remnant of the fixed digit; chelicerae not fused to underlying rostral elements, retractile in Cryptognathidae. Palpi with five free segments, palptibial claw (thumb-claw process) usually present but often weakly developed or obsolete, occasionally absent. Stigmatic openings present at base of chelicerae or absent; peritremes absent or simple to highly convoluted on cheliceral bases, or located on anterior margin of prodorsum and distally emergent (Raphignathidae). Empodial elements of tarsi commonly with tenent hairs, claws usually present on all legs (replaced by padlike structures in some Stigmaeidae), tenent hairs lacking on claws except in Barbutiidae. Males with an aedeagus, genital opening typically terminal, rarely dorsal; typically with solenidia on all tarsi. Generally with four active postembryonic instars: larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult (tritonymph present in Xenocaligonellidae).

<==Raphignathoidea
    |--RaphignathidaeSS55
    |    |--Neoraphignathus howeiWL09
    |    |--Syncaligus Berl. 1910G44
    |    |--RaphignathusWG98
    |    |--Acheles Oudemans 1903SS55
    |    |    `--*A. mirabilisSS55
    |    `--Pimeliaphilus Trägårdh 1905J61
    |         |--*P. podapolipophagus Trägårdh 1905J61
    |         |--P. cunliffei Jack 1961J61
    |         |--P. gloriosusNK94
    |         |--P. isometri Cunliffe 1949J61
    |         |--P. rapax Beer 1960B60
    |         `--P. triatomaeWL09
    `--+--CaligonellidaeWG98
       `--+--+--DasythyreidaeWL09
          |  |    |--Xanthodasythyreus Walter & Gerson 1998WG98
          |  |    |    `--*X. toohey Walter & Gerson 1998WG98
          |  |    `--Dasythyreus Atyeo 1961WG98
          |  |         `--*D. hirsutus Atyeo 1961WG98
          |  `--XenocaligonellididaeWL09
          |       |--Apocaligonellidus [incl. Echinopsis Fan & Chen 1996 non Agassiz 1840]WL09
          |       |    `--A. fukiensis (Fan & Chen 1996) [=*Echinopsis fukiensis]WL09
          |       `--Xenocaligonellidus DeLeon 1959WG98
          |            |--*X. ovaerialis DeLeon 1959WG98
          |            |--X. galapagus González 1978WL09
          |            |--X. smileyi Hu & Liang 1995WG98
          |            `--X. teclae Meyer & Ueckermann 1989WL09
          `--Camerobiidae [Neophyllobiidae]FW06
               |--NeophyllobiusFW06
               |--Tycherobius Bolland 1986S96
               |    |--T. acicula Fan & Walter 2006FW06
               |    |--T. australis Fan & Walter 2006FW06
               |    |--T. elongata Fan & Walter 2006FW06
               |    |--T. lombardiniiWG98
               |    `--T. stipula Fan & Walter 2006FW06
               `--Camerobia Southcott 1957WG98, FW06
                    |--*C. australis Southcott 1957FW06
                    |--C. fissusWL09
                    |--C. monspeliensis Bolland 1986FW06
                    |--C. pistaciae Bolland 1986FW06
                    |--C. rugulosa Fan & Chen 1997FW06
                    |--C. southcotti Gerson 1972FW06
                    `--C. turcicus Koç & Kara 2005FW06
Raphignathoidea incertae sedis:
  Barbutia [Barbutiidae]WL09
    |--B. anguineaWL09
    |--B. australisWL09
    `--B. perretaeWL09
  HomocaligidaeT01
    |--Annerosella Habeeb 1966S76
    |    `--A. pacifica Wood 1969S76
    `--Homocaligus Berl. 1910G44
         |--H. amphibius Wainstein 1975T01
         |--H. crassipesWL09
         |--H. muscorumWL09
         `--H. scapularis (Koch 1838)T01 [=Caligonus scapularisG46]
  Mecognatha Wood 1967H98 [MecognathidaeWL09]
    `--M. hirsuta Wood 1967H98
  CryptognathusH98
  EupalopsellidaeGFS97
  StigmaeidaeSS55
    |--EryngiopusWL09
    |    |--E. arboreum Wood 1967SL71
    |    |--E. bifidus Wood 1967SL71
    |    |--E. coimbatorensisG01
    |    `--E. similis Wood 1967SL71
    |--EustigmaeusKU02
    |--TacebiaKU02
    |--WooderiaKU02
    |--ChaudhriaKU02
    |--MendanaiaK90
    |--Summersiella ancydactylaWL09
    |--Mullederia arborea Wood 1964SL71
    |--PilonychiopusWL09
    |--Caligohomus durusWL09
    |--StigmaeusKU02
    |--ProstigmaeusE-VVM-M07
    |--Liostigmaeus Thor 1930G44
    |--AgistemusKU02
    |--Neilstigmaeus Gerson & Smith Meyer 1995H98
    |    `--N. lamingtoni Gerson & Smith Meyer 1995H98
    |--Podaia Oudemans 1923G44
    |    `--*P. rubens (Schrank 1781) [=Acarus rubens]G44
    |--Parastigmaeus Kuznetzov 1984KU02
    |    |--*P. capensis (Meyer 1969) [=Pseudostigmaeus capensis]KU02
    |    `--P. andreae Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002KU02
    |--Mediolata Canestrini 1890WL09, SB63
    |    |--*M. longirostris (Berlese 1887) [=Stigmaeus longirostris]SB63
    |    |--M. brevisetis Wood 1967SL71
    |    |--M. favulosa Wood 1967SL71
    |    |--M. mariaefrancaeWL09
    |    |--M. pini (Canestrini 1890) [=Eupalopsis pini]SB63
    |    |--M. robusta Gonzalez 1965SL71
    |    `--M. simplex Wood 1967SL71
    |--Ledermuelleriopsis Willmann 1953KU02
    |    |--*L. triscutata Willmann 1951 (n. d.)KU02
    |    |--L. incisa Wood 1967SL71
    |    |--L. medicae Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002KU02
    |    |--L. plumosa Willmann 1951 [=L. plumosus]KU02
    |    |--L. spinosa Wood 1967SL71
    |    `--L. zahiri Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002KU02
    |--Cheylostigmaeus Willmann 1952KU02
    |    |--*C. grandiceps Willmann 1951KU02
    |    |--C. iranensis Khanjani & Ueckermann 2002KU02
    |    |--C. luxtoni Wood 1968SL71
    |    |--C. pannonicusZ99
    |    |--C. scutatusK90
    |    `--C. torulusKU02
    |--Storchia Oudemans 1923KU02 [incl. Apostigmaeus Grandjean 1944G44]
    |    |--*S. robusta (Berlese 1885)KU02 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--S. anuaeKU02
    |    |--S. coneataKU02
    |    |--S. pacifica (Summer 1964)KU02, C-RSV-S88 [=Apostigmaeus pacificusC-RSV-S88]
    |    |--S. shanghaiansisKU02
    |    `--‘Raphignathus’ striatus Trägårdh 1904G44
    |--ZetzelliaKU02
    `--PseudostigmaeusSL71
         |--P. collyerae Wood 1967SL71
         |--P. longisetis Wood 1970SL71
         `--P. striatus Wood 1967SL71

*Storchia robusta (Berlese 1885)KU02 [=Caligonus robustusKU02, Stigmaeus robustaKU02; incl. *Apostigmaeus navicella Grandjean 1944G44, KU02, Storchia navicellaNK94]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B60] Beer, R. E. 1960. A new species of Pimeliaphilus (Acarina: Pterygosomidae) parasitic on scorpions, with discussion of its postembryonic development. Journal of Parasitology 46 (4): 433–440.

[C-RSV-S88] Corpuz-Raros, L. A., G. C. Sabio & M. Velasco-Soriano. 1988. Mites associated with stored products, poultry houses and house dust in the Philippines. Philippine Entomologist 7 (3): 311–321.

[E-VVM-M07] Estrada-Venegas, E. G., I. M. Vázquez & J. A. Moreno-Moreno. 2007. Prostigmatid mites (Acarida: Prostigmata) in decaying wood from “La Mancha” Veracruz, Mexico. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 691–695. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[FW06] Fan, Q.-H., & D. E. Walter. 2006. Camerobia and Neophyllobius (Acari: Prostigmata: Camerobiidae) from Australia, with the descriptions of two new species. Zootaxa 1309: 1–23.

[GFS97] Gerson, U., W. E. Frost & S. F. Swift. 1997. A new genus of the family Eupalopsellidae from Australia (Acari: Prostigmata). International Journal of Acarology 23 (3): 185–189.

[G44] Grandjean, F. 1944. Observations sur les acariens de la famille des Stigmaeidae. Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, 5me Période 26: 103–131.

[G46] Grandjean, F. 1946. Au sujet de l’organe de Claparède, des eupathidies multiples et des taenidies mandibulaires chez les acariens actinochitineux. Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, 5me Période 28: 63–87.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[J61] Jack, K. M. 1961. A re-examination of the genera Pimeliaphilus Trägårdh 1905 and Hirstiella Berlese 1920 (Acari: Prostigmata). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 13, 4: 305–314.

[K90] Kethley, J. 1990. Acarina: Prostigmata (Actinedida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 667–756. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[KU02] Khanjani, M., & E. A. Ueckermann. 2002. The stigmaeid mites of Iran (Acari: Stigmaeidae). International Journal of Acarology 28 (4): 317–339.

[NK94] Norton, R. A., & J. B. Kethley. 1994. Ecdysial cleavage lines of acariform mites (Arachnida, Acari). Zoologica Scripta 23 (3): 175–191.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

[SS55] Summers, F. M., & E. I. Schlinger. 1955. Mites of the family Caligonellidae (Acarina). Hilgardia 23 (12): 539–561.

[S96] Swift, S. F. 1996. Biodiversity of raphignathoid mites in the Hawaiian islands (Acariformes: Prostigmata). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 339–341. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[T01] Tolstikov, A. V. 2001. Reproductive behaviour of the semi-aquatic mite Homocaligus cf. amphibius Wainstein, 1975 (Acari: Homocaligidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 180–182. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WG98] Walter, D. E., & U. Gerson. 1998. Dasythyreidae, new family, and Xanthodasythyreus n. g. (Acari: Prostigmata: Raphignathoidea) from Australia. International Journal of Acarology 24: 189–197.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[Z99] Zinkler, D. 1999. Ecophysiological adaptations of soil mites to oxygen deficiency. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 47–51. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

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