Raspailiidae

Triketrion flabelliforme, overgrown by zoanthid Palythoa, from the Queensland Museum.

Belongs within: Axinellida.

The Raspailiidae are a group of often branching sponges, with a distinct outer skeleton composed of spicule brushes grouped around extra-axial spicules.

Characters (from Hooper 1991): Typically branching, less often massive, flabelliform or encrusting. Surface typically hispid, even, but forms with microconules or entirely smooth surfaces also known. Ectosomal skeleton with ectosomal spicule brushes (fine styles, oxeas or anisoxeas) grouped around one or more long, central, extra-axial spicules (styles, oxeas or anisoxeas). Skeletal construction usually well developed, consisting of at least two differentiated structures: axially or basally condensed choanosomal skeleton, and extra-axial subectosomal skeleton, which may be radial, plumose or plumo-reticulate. Taxa with predominantly reticulate skeletal choanosomal architecture preserve at least some rudiments of extra-axial skeleton, in form of single (or groups of) subectosomal spicules. Spongin fibres usually echinated by acanthostyles which may be secondarily lost. Acanthostyle geometry extremely diverse. Structural megascleres varying from true styles to true oxeas, with intermediate forms. Microscleres occurring rarely, when present consisting of raphides (or microxeas).

Raspailiidae [Sollasellidae]
|--Cyamon aruense Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--*Axechina raspailiodes Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--AulospongusMG-H11
|--Ceratopsion dichotoma (Whitelegge 1907)MG-H11
|--LithoplocamiaMG-H11
|--Thrinacophora cervicornis Ridley & Dendy 1886MG-H11
|--Trikentrion flabelliforme Carter 1882MG-H11
|--EctyoplasiaMC15
| |--E. tabula (Lamarck 1814)FS14
| `--E. vannus Hooper 1991FS14
|--EndectyonMC15
|--EuryponMC15
|--PandarosMC15
|--PlocamioneMC15
|--PtilocaulisMC15
|--RaspacionaMC15
|--Reniochalina stalagmitis Lendenfeld 1888MC15, FV09
|--RhabdeuryponMC15
|--Sollasella Lendenfeld 1888FW22
| |--*S. digitata Lendenfeld 1888FW22
| |--S. ananas Fromont & Wilson 2022FW22
| |--S. cervicornis (Burton 1959) [=Raspailopsis cervicornis]FW22
| |--S. maraca Fromont & Wilson 2022FW22
| |--S. moretonensis van Soest, Hooper et al. 2006FW22
| `--S. suttonorum Fromont & Wilson 2022FW22
|--TethyspiraMC15
|--TrachostyleaMC15
|--WaltherarndtiaMC15
|--RaspailiaMG-H11
| | i. s.: R. fruticosaBJ06
| | |--R. f. fruticosaBJ06
| | `--R. f. aruensis Hentschel 1912BJ06
| |--R. (Raspailia)FS14
| | |--R. (R.) phakellopsis Hooper 1991FS14
| | `--R. (R.) vestigifera Dendy 1896MG-H11
| |--R. (Clathriodendron)FS14
| | |--R. (C.) desmoxyiformis Hooper 1991MG-H11
| | `--R. (C.) melanorhops Hooper 1991FS14
| |--R. (Parasyringella)FS14
| | |--R. (P.) clathrata Ridley 1884FS14
| | `--R. (P.) nuda Hentschel 1911FS14
| `--R. (Syringella) rhaphidophora Hentschel 1912BJ06
`--HymeraphiaBJ06
|--H. aruensis Hentzschel 1912BJ06
|--H. calochela Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--H. distincta Thiele 1903BJ06
|--H. lendenfeldi Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--H. longitoxa Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--H. rhopalophora Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--H. similis Thiele 1903BJ06
|--H. tetrastyla Hentschel 1912BJ06
|--H. thielei Hentschel 1912BJ06
`--H. toxifera Hentschel 1912BJ06

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127–144.

[FS14] Fromont, J., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: sponges (Porifera). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 69–100.

[FV09] Fromont, J., & M. A. Vanderklift. 2009. Porifera (sponges) of Mermaid, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 89–103.

[FW22] Fromont, J., & N. G. Wilson. 2022. Three new species of Sollasella (Porifera: Demospongiae: Axinellida: Raspailiidae) from Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 37: 1–21.

Hooper, J. N. A. 1991. Revision of the family Raspailiidae (Porifera : Demospongiae), with description of Australian species. Invertebrate Taxonomy 5: 1179–1418.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MC15] Morrow, C., & P. Cárdenas. 2015. Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology 12: 7.

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