Rattus

 Brown rat Rattus norvegicus, photographed by Warwick Sloss.

Belongs within: Murinae.

Rattus, the true rats, is a genus of medium-sized rodents native to southern and eastern Asia and Australasia. Two species, the black rat R. rattus and the brown rat R. norvegicus, have dispersed worldwide in association with humans. The Polynesian rat R. exulans, a native of southeastern Asia, has become similarly dispersed across the Pacific region.

Characters (from Watts & Aslin 1981): Mouse- to rat-sized; tail stout, scaly with upper and lower surfaces of uniform colour; skull stout; first upper molar with internal and external cusps about equally well developed; first upper molar with five roots, second upper molar with four; supraorbital ridges usually well marked; coronoid process well developed; anterior palatal foramina moderate to long.

<==Rattus Fischer 1803WA81
|--+--R. fuscipes (Waterhouse 1839)FS15, TH67 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--R. f. fuscipesS83
| | |--R. f. assimilis (Gould 1858)D70, TH67 [=Mus assimilisTH67]
| | |--R. f. coracius Thomas 1923 [=R. assimilis coracius]WA81
| | `--R. f. greyi (Gray 1841) [=Mus greyii]WA81
| `--+--+--+--R. lutreolus (Gray 1841)FS15, TH67 (see below for synonymy)
| | | | |--R. l. lutreolusWA81
| | | | |--R. l lacus Tate 1951TH67
| | | | `--R. l. velutinus (Thomas 1882) [=Mus velutinus]WA81
| | | `--R. timorensis Kitchener, Aplin & Boeadi 1991FS15, KAB91
| | `--+--+--R. hainaldi Kitchener, How & Maharadatunkamsi 1991FS15, KHM91a
| | | `--R. tunneyi (Thomas 1904)FS15, K92 (see below for synonymy)
| | `--+--R. sordidus (Gould 1858)FS15, WA81 [=Mus sordidusWA81; incl. R. conatus Thomas 1923WA81]
| | `--+--R. colletti (Thomas 1904)FS15, GM12 [=Mus collettiWA81]
| | `--R. villosissimus (Waite 1898)FS15, GM12 (see below for synonymy)
| `--+--+--+--R. omichlodesFS15
| | | `--R. richardsoniFS15 [=Stenomys richardsoniKHM91b]
| | `--+--R. arfakiensisFS15
| | |--R. niobe (Thomas 1906)FS15, K92 [=R. (Apomys) niobeM82a, R. (Lenothrix) niobeM82a, Stenomys niobeKHM91b]
| | |--R. pocockiFS15
| | `--+--R. arrogans (Thomas 1922)FS15, APB99 [=R. niobe arrogansAPB99]
| | `--+--R. hoogerwerfiFS15
| | `--R. nativitatis (Thomas 1889)FS15, JG19
| `--+--+--R. leucopus (Gray 1867)FS15, WA81 (see below for synonymy)
| | | |--R. l. leucopusWA81
| | | `--R. l. cooktownensis Tate 1951WA81
| | `--+--R. mordaxFS15
| | | |--R. m. mordaxT37a
| | | |--R. m. hageni Troughton 1937T37a
| | | `--R. m. tramitiusT37a
| | `--R. sanilaFS15
| `--+--+--R. feliceusFS15
| | `--+--R. giluwensisFS15
| | `--R. jobiensisFS15
| `--+--+--R. elaphinusFS15
| | `--R. steiniFS15
| `--+--R. novaeguineaeFS15
| `--+--+--R. vandeuseniFS15
| | `--+--R. stoicusFS15
| | `--R. verecundusFS15 [=Stenomys verecundusKHM91b]
| | |--R. v. verecundusAPB99
| | `--R. v. unicolor (Rümmler 1935)APB99
| `--+--R. praetor (Thomas 1888)FS15, APB99
| | |--R. p. praetorAPB99
| | `--R. p. coenorum Thomas 1922APB99
| `--+--R. bontanusFS15
| |--R. marmosurusFS15
| |--R. pelurusFS15
| `--+--R. saloccoFS15
| `--R. xanthurusFS15
`--+--+--+--R. everettiFS15 [incl. R. albigularisM82b, R. galaM82b, R. tyrannusM82b]
| | `--R. pyctorisFS15
| `--+--+--Abditomys latidensFS15
| | `--TarsomysFS15
| | |--T. apoensisFS15
| | `--T. echinatusFS15
| `--+--LimnomysFS15
| | |--L. bryophilusFS15
| | `--L. sibuanusFS15
| `--+--Tryphomys adustusFS15
| `--Paulamys Musser in Musser et al. 1986FS15, KHM91b [=Floresomys Musser 1981 (preoc.)KHM91b]
| `--*P. naso (Musser 1981) [=*Floresomys naso]KHM91b
`--+--R. ceramicusBP87 [=Nesoromys ceramicusFS15]
`--+--R. sataraeFS15
`--+--+--R. norvegicus (Berkenhout 1769)FS15, B75 [=Mus norvegicusB75, Epimys norvegicusR14; incl. M. decumanusE38]
| `--+--R. annandalei (Bonhote 1903)FS15, K92
| `--R. nitidusFS15
`--+--R. exulans (Peale 1848)FS15, K92 [=Mus exulansR64, Epimys exulansR14]
| |--R. e. exulansR14
| |--R. ‘browni’ aitape Troughton 1937T37a
| |--R. e. browni (Alston 1877)APB99
| |--R. e. ephippiumKHM91a
| |--‘Mus’ e. maoriumR14
| |--R. ‘browni’ praecelsus Troughton 1937T37a
| |--R. ‘browni’ suffectus Troughton 1937T37a
| `--R. ‘browni’ tibicen Troughton 1937T37a
`--+--+--+--R. andamanensisFS15
| | `--R. tawitawiensisFS15
| `--+--+--R. argentiventer (Robinson & Kloss 1916)FS15, K92
| | `--R. mindorensisFS15
| `--+--R. hoffmanni (Matchie 1901)FS15, K92
| `--R. montanusFS15
`--+--+--R. loseaFS15
| | |--R. l. loseaM82a
| | `--R. l. sakeratensis [=R. (Apomys) sakeratensis, R. (Lenothrix) sakeratensis]M82a
| `--R. macleari (Thomas 1887)FS15, JG19
`--+--+--R. rattus (Linnaeus 1758)FS15, K92 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--R. r. rattusJ62
| | |--R. r. alexandrinus (Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1803)B75 [=Epimys rattus alexandrinusR14]
| | |--R. r. diardiKAB91
| | |--R. r. frugivorus (Rafinesque-Schmaltz 1814)KK54
| | |--R. r. mansorius Johnson 1962J62
| | |--R. r. mindanensisJ62
| | |--‘Mus’ r. rufescensM89
| | `--R. r. sumbaeKAB91
| `--+--R. mollicomulusFS15
| `--R. tanezumiFS15 [=R. rattus tanezumiBM84]
`--+--+--R. korinchiFS15
| `--+--R. ranjiniaeFS15
| `--+--R. baluensisFS15
| `--R. morotaiensisFS15
`--+--+--R. osgoodi Musser & Newcomb 1985FS15, FN97
| `--+--R. enganusFS15
| `--R. koopmaniFS15
`--+--R. adustusFS15
|--R. blangorumFS15
|--R. burrusFS15
|--R. lugensFS15
|--R. palmarumFS15
|--R. simalurensisFS15
`--R. tiomanicus (Miller 1900)FS15, K92

Rattus incertae sedis:
R. callitrichusBP87
R. chrysocomusT37b
R. concolorT37a
|--R. c. concolorT37a
|--R. c. lassacquereiT37a
`--R. c. manoquariusT37a
R. confucianusWX96
R. couchaM82a
|--R. c. couchaM82a
`--R. c. microdon (Peters 1852) [=Mus microdon]M82a
R. culionensisBP87
R. foramineusAC98
R. gestri (Thomas 1897) [=Mus gestri; incl. R. brachyrhinus]T37a
|--R. g. gestriT37a
`--R. g. aramia Troughton 1937T37a
R. latidensBP87
R. meltadaP73
|--R. m. meltadaP73
`--R. m. pallidiorP73
R. owiensisBP87
R. pulliventerBP87
R. remotusBP87
R. rogersiBP87
R. sikkimensisIT07
R. turkestanicusIT07
R. vanheurniT37a

Rattus fuscipes (Waterhouse 1839)FS15, TH67 [=Mus fuscipesTH67, R. lutreolus fuscipesTH67; incl. R. glauerti Thomas 1926WA81, Mus manicatus Gould 1858WA81, R. mondraineus Thomas 1921WA81, M. murrayi Thomas 1923WA81, R. greyi peccatus Troughton 1937WA81, R. greyi pelori Finlayson 1960WA81, R. greyi ravus Brazenor 1936 non R. ravus Robison & Kloss 1916WA81]

Rattus leucopus (Gray 1867)FS15, WA81 [=Acanthomys leucopusWA81; incl. R. leucopus mcilwraithi Tate 1951WA81, Hapalotis personata Krefft 1867WA81, Mus terrareginae Alston 1879WA81]

Rattus lutreolus (Gray 1841) FS15, TH67 [=Mus lutreola TH67; incl. R. lutreolus cambricus Troughton 1937WA81, R. lutreolus imbil Troughton 1937WA81, Mus vellerosus Gray 1847WA81]

Rattus rattus (Linnaeus 1758)FS15, K92 [=Mus rattusWA81, Epimys rattusR14; incl. Hapalotis arboricola Gould 1863WA81, E. chionogaster Lönnberg 1916WA81, Mus griseocoeruleus Higgins & Petterd 1883WA81, M. tamarensis Higgins & Petterd 1884WA81, M. tompsoni Ramsay 1882WA81, M. variabilis Higgins & Petterd 1883WA81]

Rattus tunneyi (Thomas 1904)FS15, K92 [=Mus tunneyiWA81; incl. R. culmorum apex Troughton 1939WA81, R. culmorum austrinus Thomas 1921WA81, M. culmorum Thomas & Dollman 1908WA81, Rattus culmorum K92, R. tunneyi dispar Brazenor 1936WA81, R. melvilleus Thomas 1921WA81, R. culmorum vallesius Thomas 1921WA81, Mus woodwardi Thomas 1908WA81]

Rattus villosissimus (Waite 1898)FS15, GM12 [=Mus villosissimusWA81; incl. M. lonigpilis Gould 1854WA81, Rattus villosissimus profusus Thomas 1921WA81]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[APB99] Aplin, K. P., J. M. Pasveer & W. E. Boles. 1999. Late Quaternary vertebrates from the Bird’s Head Peninsula, Irian Jaya, Indonesia, including descriptions of two previously unknown marsupial species. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 57: 351–387.

[BM84] Babrakzai, N., & W. B. Miller. 1984. Cytogenetic study of interspecific hybrids of Ashmunella (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Polygyridae), I. A. proxima × A. lenticula F1 hybrids. Malacologia 25 (2): 413–426.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[D70] Dunnet, G. M. 1970. Siphonaptera (fleas). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 647–655. Melbourne University Press.

[E38] Ewing, H. E. 1938. North American mites of the subfamily Myobiinae, new subfamily (Arachnida). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (7): 180–197.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[FN97] Feiler, A., & T. Nadler. 1997. Recently discovered mammals in Vietnam—present results on taxonomy, zoogeography, status and on the protection of the animals (Mammalia). Zoologische Abhandlungen 49 (21): 331–335.

[GM12] Gibson, L. A., & N. L. McKenzie. 2012. Occurrence of non-volant mammals on islands along the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 15–40.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[J62] Johnson, D. H. 1962. Two new murine rodents. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 317–319.

[KAB91] Kitchener, D. J., K. P. Aplin & Boeadi. 1991. A new species of Rattus from Gunung Mutis, south west Timor Island, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15 (2): 445–461.

[KHM91a] Kitchener, D. J., R. A. How & Maharadatunkamsi. 1991a. A new species of Rattus from the mountains of west Flores, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15 (3): 555–570.

[KHM91b] Kitchener, D. J., R. A. How & Maharadatunkamsi. 1991b. Paulamys sp. cf. P. naso (Musser, 1981) (Rodentia: Muridae) from Flores Island, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia—description from a modern specimen and a consideration of its phylogenetic affinities. Records of the Western Australian Museum 15 (1): 171–189.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3–4): 121–135.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Appunti intorno ai mammiferi dell’isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 238–245.

[M82a] Musser, G. G. 1982a. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 108. The definition of Apomys, a native rat of the Philippine Islands. American Museum Novitates 2746: 1–43.

[M82b] Musser, G. G. 1982b. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 110. Crunomys and the small-bodied shrew rats native to the Philippine Islands and Sulawesi (Celebes). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 174 (1): 1–95.

[P73] Prakash, I. 1973. Eco-toxicology and control of Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae (Jerdon). IX. Ecological distribution in the Rajasthan desert. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 510–517.

[R14] Revilliod, P. 1914. Les mammifères de la Nouvell-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 341–365, pl. 10. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[R64] Ride, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the Australian faunal list). Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 7 (Suppl.): 1–15.

[S83] Smith, A. M. A. 1983. The subspecific biochemical taxonomy of Antechinus minimus, A. swainsonii and Sminthopsis leucopus (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae). Australian Journal of Zoology 32: 753–762.

[TH67] Taylor, J. M., & B. E. Horner. 1967. Results of the Archbold Expeditions. No. 88. The historical misapplication of the Mus fuscipes and a systematic re-evaluation of Rattus lacus (Rodentia, Muridae). American Museum Novitates 2281: 1–14.

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