Rhaphidophoridae

Ceuthophilus conicaudus, copyright James C. Cokendolpher.

Belongs within: Ensifera.

The Rhaphidophoridae, camel crickets and cave weta, are a group of wingless orthopterans. They often have markedly long legs and antennae though they also include short-legged forms such as the genus Gammarotettix. Members of the subfamily Macropathinae have paired apical spines on the first and second segments of the hind tarsi whereas other subfamilies bear an unpaired apical spine or small tubercle on those segments (Gorochov 2001).

Characters (from Gorochov 2001): Wings always absent. Tarsi usually with four segments, very rarely with three, with non-widened pulvilli, first segment with only one pulvillus unless two proximal segments fused. Femoro-abdominal stridulatory apparatus absent. Ovipositor always developed, with lower part of upper valvae partly (sometimes almost completely) covering lower valvae on outside.

<==Rhaphidophoridae
    |--MacropathinaeG01
    |    |--HeteromallusG01
    |    |--Pallidotettix nullarborensisR96
    |    |--Cavernotettix wyanbenensisR96
    |    |--AustralotettixR96
    |    |--Talitopsis [Talitropsini]G01
    |    |    `--T. crassicrurisG01
    |    `--Macropathus [Macropathini]G01
    |         |--M. filiferG01
    |         `--M. tasmaniensisR91
    `--+--+--ProtroglophilinaeG01
       |  |    |--ProtroglophilusG01
       |  |    `--Prorhaphidophora zeuneriG01, P92
       |  |--+--Troglophilus [Troglophilinae]G01
       |  |  `--Dolichopoda araneiformis (Burmeister 1838)G01, UO05
       |  `--+--AemodogryllinaeG01
       |     |    |  i. s.: DiestrammenaG01
       |     |    |--AemodogrylliniG01
       |     |    `--Diestramima [Diestramimini]G01
       |     `--RhaphidophorinaeG01
       |          |--StonychophoraG01
       |          |--EurhaphidophoraG01
       |          |--PararhaphidophoraG01
       |          `--NeorhaphidophoraG01
       `--+--Gammarotettix [Gammarotettiginae]G01
          |    `--G. bovisG01
          `--CeuthophilinaeG01
               |  i. s.: Macrobaenetes velgumG01, C90
               |         GeotettixG01
               |--PristoceutophiliniG01
               |--Argyrtes [Argyrtini]G01
               |--Daihinia [Daihiniini]G01
               |    `--D. brevipesG01
               |--Hadenoecus [Hadenoecini]G01
               |    `--H. subterraneusHR01
               `--Ceuthophilus [Ceuthophilini]G01
                    |--C. carlsbadensisZ94
                    |--C. conicaudusZ94
                    |--C. fusiformisBM76
                    |--C. guttulosusE70
                    |    |--C. g. guttulosusE70
                    |    |--C. g. angulosusE70
                    |    `--C. g. thomasiE70
                    |--C. longipesZ94
                    |--C. paucispinosusZ94
                    |--C. pimaZ94
                    |--C. utahensisTW05
                    `--C. variegatusC90
Rhaphidophoridae incertae sedis:
  AnoplophilinaeG01
    |--AnoplophilusG01
    `--AlpinanoplophilusG01
  GymnoplectronG01
    |--G. edwardsiM01
    |--G. giganteumS01
    `--G. longipesS01
  GigantettixG01
  Tropidischia [Tropidischiinae]G01
  Daihinibaenetes arizonensisW01
  Pallidoplectron turneriR60
  Daihinoides larvaleC90
  Tachycines asynamorusRD77

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E70] Eades, D. C. 1970. Theoretical and procedural aspects of numerical phyletics. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 142–171.

[G01] Gorochov, A. V. 2001. The higher classification, phylogeny and evolution of the superfamily Stenopelmatoidea. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 3–33. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[HR01] Hale, R. J., & D. C. F. Rentz. 2001. The Gryllacrididae: an overview of the world fauna with emphasis on Australian examples. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 95–110. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[M01] McIntyre, M. 2001. The ecology of some large weta species in New Zealand. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 225–242. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R91] Rentz, D. C. F. 1991. Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 369–393. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R60] Richards, A. M. 1960. Observations on the New Zealand glow-worm Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse) 1890. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 559–574.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S01] Sherley, G. 2001. Conservation of threatened species of weta (Orthoptera: Anastostomatidae) in New Zealand. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 521–527. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161–174.

[W01] Weissman, D. B. 2001. Communication and reproductive behaviour in Noth American Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatus) (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 351–375. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[Z94] Zhang, Z.-Q. 1994. Neothrombiidae (Acari: Trombidioidea) of the world: systematic review with a phylogenetic analysis and descriptions of two new genera. Oriental Insects 28: 205–237.

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