Cane toad Rhinella marina, copyright Steve Kerr.

Belongs within: Bufonidae.

Rhinella is a primarily Neotropical genus of toads.

<==Rhinella Fitzinger 1826FG06 (see below for synonymy)
|--+--+--'Chaunus’ arequipensis (Vellard 1959)FG06 [=Bufo arequipensisPW11]
| | `--'Chaunus’ spinulosus (Wiegmann 1834)FG06 [=Bufo spinulosusPW11]
| | |--C. s. spinulosusCER68
| | `--‘Bufo’ s. chilensisCER68
| `--+--'Chaunus’ limensis (Werner 1901)FG06 [=Bufo spinulosus limensisPW11, CER68]
| `--'Chaunus’ vellardi (Leviton & Duellman 1978)FG06 [=Bufo vellardiPW11]
`--+--+--'Chaunus’ arunco (Molina 1782)FG06 [=Bufo aruncoPW11]
| `--'Chaunus’ atacamensis (Cei 1962)FG06 [=Bufo atacamensisPW11]
`--+--+--+--'Chaunus’ amboroensis (Harvey & Smith 1993)FG06 [=Bufo amboroensisPW11]
| | `--'Chaunus’ veraguensis (Schmidt 1857)FG06 [=Bufo veraguensisPW11]
| `--+--+--'Chaunus’ chavin (Lehr, Köhler et al. 2001)FG06 [=Bufo chavinPW11]
| | `--+--‘Bufo’ manuPW11
| | `--'Chaunus’ nesiotes (Duellman & Toft 1979)FG06 [=Bufo nesiotesPW11]
| `--+--R. ocellata Günther 1858FB17, FG06 [=Bufo ocellatusPW11]
| `--+--‘Bufo’ castaneoticus Caldwell 1991PW11, FG06 [=Rhinella castaneoticaFG06]
| `--+--‘Bufo’ dapsilis Myers & Carvalho 1945PW11, FG06 [=Rhinella dapsilisFG06]
| `--R. margaritifer (Laurenti 1768)FG06 (see below for synonymy)
`--+--+--'Chaunus’ beebei (Gallardo 1965)FG06 [=Bufo beebeiPW11]
| `--'Chaunus’ granulosus (Spiz 1824)FG06 [=Bufo granulosusPW11; incl. *C. marmoratus Wagler 1828FG06]
| |--C. g. granulosusCER68
| `--‘Bufo’ g. goeldiCER68
`--+--+--'Chaunus’ poeppigii (Tschudi 1845)PW11, FG06 [=Bufo marinus poeppigiFG06, CER68]
| `--+--R. marina (Linnaeus 1758)C18, FG06 [=Bufo marinusPW11, Chaunus marinusC18]
| | |--R. m. marinaCER68
| | `--‘Bufo’ m. horribilisCER68
| `--'Chaunus’ schneideri (Werner 1894)FG06 [=Bufo schneideriPW11]
`--+--'Chaunus’ achavali (Maneyro, Arrieta & de Sá 2004)FG06 [=Bufo achavaliPW11]
`--+--'Chaunus’ crucifer (Wied-Neuwied 1821)FG06 [=Bufo cruciferPW11]
`--+--'Chaunus’ arenarum (Hensel 1867)FG06 [=Bufo arenarumPW11]
`--'Chaunus’ ictericus (Spix 1924)FG06 [=Bufo ictericusPW11]

Rhinella incertae sedis:
*R. proboscidea (Spix 1824) [=Bufo (Oxyrhynchus) proboscideus, *Eurhina proboscidea]FG06
R. acutirostris (Spix 1824) [=Bufo acutirostris]FG06
R. alata (Thominot 1884) [=Bufo alatus]FG06
R. ceratophrys (Boulenger 1882) [=Bufo ceratophrys]FG06
R. cristinae (Vélez-Ridriguez & Ruiz-Carranza 2002) [=Bufo cristinae]FG06
*Trachycara’ fusca Tschudi 1834FG06
R. intermedia (Günther 1858) [=Bufo intermedius]FG06
R. roqueana (Melin 1941) [=Bufo roqueanus]FG06
R. scitula (Caramaschi & Niemeyer 2003) [=Bufo scitulus]FG06
R. sclerocephala (Mijares-Urrutia & Arends-R. 2001) [=Bufo sclerocephalus]FG06
R. stanlaii (Lötters & Köhler 2000) [=Bufo stanlaii]FG06
R. sternosignata (Günther 1858) [=Bufo sternosignatus]FG06

Rhinella Fitzinger 1826FG06 [=Eurhina Fitizinger 1843FG06; incl. Chaunus Wagler 1828C18, Otilophus Cuvier 1829FG06, Oxyrhynchus Spix 1824 nec Leach 1818 nec Temminck 1823FG06, Trachycara Tschudi 1845FG06]

Rhinella margaritifer (Laurenti 1768) FG06 [=Rana margaritiferaFG06, Bufo margaritiferPW11, *Otilophus margaritiferFG06]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CER68] Cei, J. M., V. Erspamer & M. Roseghini. 1968. Taxonomic and evolutionary significance of biogenic amines and polypeptides in amphibian skin. II. Toads of the genera Bufo and Melanophryniscus. Systematic Zoology 17 (3): 232–245.

[C18] Cogger, H. G. 2018. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia updated 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[FB17] Feng, Y.-J., D. C. Blackburn, D. Liang, D. M. Hillis, D. B. Wake, D. C. Cannatella & P. Zhang. 2017. Phylogenomics reveals rapid, simultaneous diversification of three major clades of Gondwanan frogs at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114 (29): E5864–E5870.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

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