Rhodacaridae

Generalised dorsum of Rhodacarus, from here.

Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Rhodacaridae are a group of mostly small, delicate, free-living mites commonly found in deeper soil layers. Some species may even be found in deep groundwaters. They are predators of minute animals such as collembolans or nematodes. One genus Tangaroellus is associated with barnacles in intertidal rock fissures in New Zealand (Lindquist et al. 2009). The dorsum is covered by a holodorsal shield in species of the genus Heydeniella but divided between podonotal and opisthonotal shields in other genera. Members of the genus Rhodacarus lack an ambulacrum on the first legs (Evans & Till 1979).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Palpi five-segmented, with separate tibia and tarsus; palptarsal apotele three-timed; legs IV with ten setae on genu (2 2/1, 3/1 1), ten on tibia (2 1/1, 3/1 2); male with sternal setae st5 on sternitigenital shield; female sternal shield fused with metasternal plates so as to include fourth pair of sternal setae; anterior portion of female sternal shield and male sternitigenital shield undifferentiated from more posterior portions.

<==Rhodacaridae [Rhodacarellinae, Rhodacarinae]
    |--Tangaroellus Luxton 1968L90
    |    `--*T. porosus Luxton 1968L90
    |--Minirhodacarellus minimus (Karg 1961)M96
    |--Protogamasellopsis Evans & Purvis 1987LKW09, EP87
    |    |--*P. corticalis Evans & Purvis 1987EP87
    |    `--P. dioscorus (Manson 1972) [=Protogamasellus diocorus]EP87
    |--Heydeniella Richters 1907ET79
    |    |--*H. crozetensis Richters 1907ET79
    |    `--H. goeiET79
    |--Rhodacaropsis Willmann 1935K86
    |    |--R. attenuata Loots 1969K86
    |    |--R. botosaneanui Petrova & Beron 1973K86 [=Rhodacarus (Rhodacaropsis) botosaneanuiFH93]
    |    |--R. cubana Petrova & Beron 1973K86 [=Rhodacarus (Rhodacaropsis) cubanusFH93]
    |    `--R. inexpectata Willmann 1935K86
    |--Rhodacarellus Willmann 1935K86
    |    |--*R. subterraneus Willmann 1935ET79
    |    |--R. arcanus Athias-Henriot 1961H73
    |    |--R. calcarulatusL74
    |    |--R. corniculatus Willmann 1935K86
    |    |--R. silesiacus Willmann 1936K86
    |    `--R. vervactiK86
    |--Rhodacarus Oudemans 1902K86
    |    |--*R. roseus Oudemans 1902ET79
    |    |--R. ancorae Karg 1971K91
    |    |--R. angustiformisK86
    |    |--R. berresfordi Loots 1969K86
    |    |--R. calcarulatus Berlese 1921K86
    |    |--R. clavulatusM96
    |    |--R. coronatus Berlese 1921K91
    |    |--R. (Multidentorhodacarus) denticulatus Berlese 1920FH93
    |    |--R. haarloviAK91
    |    |--R. marksae Domrow 1957H98
    |    |--R. minimusKA90
    |    |--R. pallidus Hull 1918K86
    |    `--R. strenzkei Willmann 1957K86
    |--Afrodacarellus Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--*A. femoratus Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. camaxiloensisH73
    |    |--A. concavus Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. congoensis [=Afrogamasellus congoensis]H73
    |    |--A. kivuensis [=Afrogamasellus kivuensis]H73
    |    |--A. leleupi [=Afrogamasellus leleupi]H73
    |    |--A. longipodus Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. lunguensis [=Afrogamasellus lunguensis]H73
    |    |--A. lupangaensis Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. machadoi (Loots 1969) [=Afrogamasellus machadoi]H73
    |    |--A. minutus Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. mossi Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. msituni Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. ngorongoroensis Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. novembus Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. pili Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. pocsi Hurlbutt 1973H73
    |    |--A. reticulatus [=Afrogamasellus reticulatus]H73
    |    |--A. ruwenzoriensis (Loots 1969) [=Afrogamasellus ruwenzoriensis]H73
    |    `--A. uviraensis [=Afrogamasellus uviraensis]H73
    |--PilellusSL71
    `--Afrogamasellus Loots & Ryke 1968H73
         |  i. s.: A. lubalensis (Loots 1969)H73
         |         A. mitigatus (Berlese 1924) [=Gamasellus mitigatus]H73
         |--A. luberoensisH73
         |--A. succinctus groupH73
         |    |--*A. franzi (Ryke & Loots 1966) [=Cyrtolaelaps (Gamasellus) franzi]H73
         |    |--A. franzoides Hurlbutt 1973H73
         |    |--A. kilimanjaroensis (Ryke & Loots 1966) [=Cyrtolaelaps (Gamasellus) kilimanjaroensis]H73
         |    |--A. mongii Hurlbutt 1973H73
         |    |--A. quadrisigillatus (Berlese 1916) [=Gamasellus quadrisigillatus]H73
         |    `--A. succinctus (Berlese 1916) [=Gamasellus succinctus]H73
         |--A. myersi groupH73
         |    |--A. bakeri Hurlbutt 1973H73
         |    |--A. citri Loots 1969H73
         |    `--A. myersiH73
         |--A. tetrastigma groupH73
         |    |--A. celisiH73
         |    |--A. evansiH73
         |    |--A. isthmus Hurlbutt 1973H73
         |    |--A. kahusiensisH73
         |    |--A. lootsi Hurlbutt 1973H73
         |    |--A. lyamunguensis Hurlbutt 1973H73
         |    |--A. muhiensisH73
         |    |--A. nyinabitabaensisH73
         |    |--A. rugegensisH73
         |    |--A. tetrastigma (Berlese 1916) [=Gamasellus tetrastigma, Cyrtolaelaps (Gamasellus) tetrastigma]H73
         |    `--A. uluguruensis Hurlbutt 1973H73
         `--A. truncatus groupH73
              |--A. latigynia Hurlbutt 1973H73
              |--A. maskamensis (Ryke & Loots 1966) [=Cyrtolaelaps (Gamasellus) maskamensis]H73
              |--A. paratruncatus Hurlbutt 1973H73
              `--A. truncatus Hurlbutt 1973H73

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AK91] Alberti, G., M. Kratzmann, C. Błaszak, H. Streit & U. Blumröder. 1991. Soil mites and acidification: a comparative study of four forest stands near Heidelberg. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 491–493. Chapman & Hall: London.

[EP87] Evans, G. O., & G. Purvis. 1987. A new ascid mite from St Helena with observations on the Protogamasellus complex (Acari: Mesostigmata). Journal of Natural History 21: 855–861.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari—Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H73] Hurlbutt, H. W. 1973. The Afrogamasellus Loots and Ryke and Afrodacarellus n. gen. (Acarina: Rhodacaridae) of Tanzania. Acarologia 15 (4): 565–615.

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. A five year study on the secondary succession of Gamasina on a ruderal site: the influence of recultivation. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 373–383. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K86] Krantz, G. W. 1986. Acari: Rhodacaridae. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 632–634. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583–665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[L74] Lee, D. C. 1974. Rhodacaridae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from near Adelaide, Australia. III. Behaviour and development. Acarologia 16 (1): 21–44.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[L90] Luxton, M. 1990. The marine littoral mites of the New Zealand region. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 20 (4): 367–418.

[M96] Munderloh, E. 1996. Gamasina (Mesostigmata) in a dune transect at Spiekeroog (Germany, Lower Saxony). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 589–594. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

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