Rhodomela confervoides, from here.

Belongs within: Ceramiales.
Contains: Polyzonieae, Chondria, Pterosiphonieae, Herposiphonieae, Bostrychieae, Laurencia, Lophothalieae, Amansieae, Polysiphonia.

The Rhodomelaceae are a diverse family of red algae growing as uniaxial, polysiphonous thalli in which pericentral cells are cut off in alternate order.

The alga of uncertainty
Published 19 October 2011
The red alga Rhodomela confervoides, from Coastal Imageworks.

The tradition in taxonomy that nothing is ever really forgotten (for which there are very good reasons) means that, over the years, we have accumulated a certain amount of excess detritus. Whether referred to as nomina dubia, species inquirendae or just plain unidentifiable, there are a number of names for which the original description or material is not adequate to determine their identity with certainty. Most nomina dubia simply slumber undisturbed, not interfering with standard taxonomic practice; they simply serve to irritate those whose role it is to assemble comprehensive listings.

The red alga Rhodomela preissii was named by Sonder in 1848 for a specimen collected in Western Australia. He diagnosed it as “fronde tereti filiformi siccitate subplicata a basi dichotome ramosa, ramis inferioribus patentibus superioribus brevioribus erectiusculis, ramulis sparsis setaceis simplicibus furcatisve, capsulis subpedicellatis solitariis ramis superioribus adnatis”, Latin descriptions being the fashion at the time*. The specimen appears to have never been figured.

*Some of you may be aware that the Botanical Congress recently voted to remove the requirement for Latin diagnoses or descriptions from the Botanical Code of Nomenclature**. Authors are still required to give a diagnosis for new taxa in either Latin or English, so Chinese still doesn’t get a look-in.

**Though it was also decided that it would no longer be called the Botanical Code. It’s now the “International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants”. I suppose that we should be just grateful they didn’t go with the even more explicit “International Code of Nomenclature for Plants, Fungi, Algae, Oomycetes, Labyrinthuleans, Plasmodiophoromycetes, Mycetozoans, Dinoflagellates, Euglenaceae and Cyanobacteria (and maybe Fossil Bacteria, on alternate Tuesdays)”.

Hypnea rosea, photographed by Olivier De Clerck.

Womersley (2003) noted that the type specimen of Rhodomela preissii, held at the Melbourne herbarium, is small and inadequate for the species’ identification. True Rhodomela is unknown from Australia, though other members of the Rhodomelaceae occur there. Womersley, however, suggested that R. preissii might be a specimen of Hypnea. If true, this would place ‘R.’ preissii some distance phylogenetically from Rhodomela, the latter belonging to the order Ceramiales while Hypnea is a member of the Gigartinales. As things stand, though, no-one seems to be faced with a great need to resolve the question.

Pines for the sea
Published 6 February 2017

There aren’t many types of algae that receive their own vernacular name. Despite the fact that thousands of different species of macroscopic algae exist in the world, the majority tend to get lumped under the catch-all term of ‘seaweed’. Among those seaweeds that are visible enough to stand out from the general crowd is Neorhodomela larix, the ‘black pine’.

Black pine Neorhodomela larix growing alongside lighter-coloured Analipus japonicus on a beach in California, copyright Peter D. Tillman.

Neorhodomela larix is a common seaweed species on the west coast of North America. It has also been recorded from the western side of the Pacific Ocean, but it should be noted that it might not always be readily distinguished from related species (indeed, N. larix was not distinguished at species level from the primarily western Pacific N. aculeata until the revision of this genus by Masuda, 1982). The name ‘black pine’ that has been bestowed on it reflects its overall appearance. Black pine grows as erect axes radiating from a small basal holdfast. These primary axes give rise to regular branches arranged in a spiral fashion; most of these side branches, at least in young individuals, only grow to a fixed, short length and remain unbranched or only bifurcate (in more mature individuals, some of the side branches become indeterminate in length and grow in a similar manner to the primary axes). The overall effect is to make the seaweed stems look like a bottlebrush or, with a bit of imagination, like a pine-tree branch (or at least like a plastic-Christmas-tree branch). Black pine is particularly common on horizontal, wave-exposed beaches about a foot above the mean low-tide mark; in some places it may form large, continuous stands. It is most abundant where said shorelines are swept by sand, probably because the action of the sand’s movement keeps away grazers such as urchins (D’Antonio 1986).

Neorhodomela larix was previously included in the closely related genus Rhodomela, and some sources still refer to it as ‘Rhodomela larix‘. Masuda (1982) established Neorhodomela as a separate genus from Rhodomela due to differences in vegetative structure. Both genera possess hair-like branchlets known as trichoblasts, but in Rhodomela these arise from the main branches spirally whereas in Neorhodomela they are positioned dorsally and arise in a zig-zag arrangement. Spermatangia are produced from trichoblasts in Neorhodomela, whereas in Rhodomela the spermatangia are produced directly on the unspecialised branches and the trichoblasts are only vegetative structures. In N. larix, few vegetative trichoblasts are produced until shortly before the production of reproductive trichoblasts bearing spermatangia; other Neorhodomela species (such as N. aculeata) may start producing vegetative trichoblasts soon after germination.

Apart from the ecological role it presumably plays in providing food and shelter to other coastal lifeforms, Neorhodomela larix does not have much of a direct impact economically. Like many macroalgae, black pine produces chemical compounds known as bromophenols that have been subject to some investigation due to their potentially beneficial (such as anti-microbial or anti-oxidant) activities. However, to date no practical pharmaceutical products have been developed from algal bromophenols, in part because the amount of these compounds produced by the algae in vivo is fairly low (Liu et al. 2011). For now, there is little to disturb these little pine forests by the sea.

Systematics of Rhodomelaceae

Characters (from Womersley 2003): Thallus usually erect and much branched, occasionally foliose and/or prostrate, branches terete, compressed or flat, all erect branches similar or with indeterminate branches bearing determinate laterals of limited growth; adventitious branching occasionally present. Holdfast discoid or fibrous, or basal attachment by rhizoids. Growth monopodial, by transverse or oblique divisions of apical cells, transverse divisions followed by longitudinal divisions to give pericentral cells and oblique divisions giving rise to laterals; primary branching exogenous, occasionally later branching endogenous from axial cells or pericentral cells within cortex, or adventitious. Apices either radial or dorsiventral in symmetry. Pericentral cells 4–24, cut off in alternating order, ecorticate or corticate, occasionally dividing transversely; cortex parenchymatous or rhizoidal, or with rhizoids separating pericentral or cortical cells; pseudopericentral cells occasionally present. Trichoblasts usually present on subapical cells, occasionally on pericentral or cortical cells, colourless or containing rhodoplasts. Cells uni- or multinucleate; rhodoplasts usually discoid, often chained in larger cells. Gametophytes usually dioecious; mixed phases occasionally present. Procarps borne on lower cells of trichoblasts or directly on thallus branches, consisting of a supporting cell (a fertile pericentral cell or its derivative cell) and a (3–) 4-celled carpogonial branch, together with a lateral sterile group; auxiliary cell cut off from supporting cell after fertilization. Carposporophytes developing from auxiliary and adjacent cells which usually form a basal fusion cell bearing a usually much-branched gonimoblast with clavate terminal carposporangia replaced from lower cells (i.e. not strictly sympodial branching). Cystocarps ovoid to subspherical, occasionally urceolate; pericarp produced pre-fertilization from cells adjacent to supporting cell, consisting of erect filaments, each cell with 2–3 outer pericentral cells, ecorticate or corticate, with narrow to broad ostiole. Spermatangial organs usually borne on branches of trichoblasts or replacing entire trichoblast, terete or as flat plates and with monosiphonous stalk, or borne directly on lesser branches of thallus; axial cells cut off 2–5 pericentral cells which form a layer of initials which produce an outer layer of spermatangia. Tetrasporangia produced in polysiphonous, terete, lateral branches or in compressed to flat specialised branches, usually regarded as stichidia, cut off pericentral cells or ocassionally from cortical cells, usually with 2–3 presporangial cover cells from fertile pericentral cell and occasionally a post-sporangial cover cell, with or without cover of cortical cells. Tetrasporangia tetrahedrally divided, usually subspherical, single per segment and spirally arranged or in straight row, or twinned and distichously or decussately arranged, or verticillate and 4–6 per segment.

    |  |    |--Lembergia Saenger in Saenger et al. 1971P01
    |  |    |    `--*L. allanii (Lindauer) Saenger in Saenger et al. 1971 [=Lenormandia allanii Lindauer 1949]P01
    |  |    `--Sonderella Schmitz 1899P01
    |  |         `--*S. linearis (Harvey) Schmitz 1899 (see below for synonymy)P01
    |  `--+--BostrychieaeP01
    |     `--Heterocladia Decaisne 1842P01, W03 [incl. Trigenia Sonder 1845W03; Heterocladieae]
    |          |--*H. australis Decaisne 1842W03 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |--H. caudata Phillips, Choi et al. 2000 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |          `--H. umbellifera (Zanardini) Womersley 2003 (see below for synonymy)W03
       |    |--LaurenciaP01
       |    |--RodriguezellaW03
       |    |--Osmundea Stackhouse 1809W03
       |    |--Janczewskia Solms-Laubach 1877W03
       |    |    |--*J. verrucaeformis Solms-Laubach 1877W03
       |    |    |--J. gardneri Setchell & Guernsey in Setchell 1914S57
       |    |    `--J. tasmanica Falkenberg 1901 [incl. J. australis Falkenberg ex Reinbold 1899 (n. n.)]W03
       |    `--Chondrophycus (Tokida & Saito in Saito 1967) Garbary & Harper 1998W03
       |         |--*C. cartilagineus (Yamada) Garbary & Harper 1998W03
       |         |--C. brandenii (Saito & Womersley) Nam 1999 [=Laurencia brandenii Saito & Womersley 1974]W03
       |         |--C. cruciatus (Harvey) Nam 1999 [=Laurencia cruciata Harvey 1855]W03
       |         |--C. paniculatus (Agardh) Furnari in Boisset et al. 2000 (see below for synonymy)W03
       |         `--C. tumidus (Saito & Womersley) Garbary & Harper 1998 [=Laurencia tumida Saito & Womersley 1974]W03
             `--+--Rhodomela [Rhodomeleae]P01
                |    |--*R. confervoidesCK02
                |    |--R. gaimardiBS-V28
                |    |--R. lycopodioides (Linnaeus) Agardh 1822S57
                |    |--R. preissii Sonder 1848W03
                |    |--R. subfuscaG64
                |    `--R. traversiana Agardh 1877L27
                `--+--Pleurostichidium [Pleurostichidieae]P01
                   |    `--P. falkenbergii Heydr. 1893L27
                        |--Metamorphe colensoi (Hooker & Harvey) Falkenberg 1897 [=Polysiphonia colensoi]W03
                        |--*Aphanocladia delicatula (Hooker & Harvey) Falkenberg 1897 [=Rytiphaea delicatula]W03
                        |--Alleynea Womersley 2003W03
                        |    `--*A. bicornis Womersley 2003 (see below for synonymy)W03
                        |--Diplocladia Kylin 1956W03
                        |    `--*D. patersonis (Sonder) Kylin 1956 (see below for synonymy)W03
                        |--Perrinia Womersley 2003 non Adams & Adams 1854 (ICZN)W03
                        |    `--*P. ericoides (Harvey) Womersley 2003 (see below for synonymy)W03
                        |--Pityophycos Papenfuss 1958W03
                        |    `--*P. tasmanica (Sonder) Papenfuss 1958 (see below for synonymy)W03
                        |--Chiracanthia Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
                        |    `--*C. arborea (Harvey) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 (see below for synonymy)W03
                        |--Tolypiocladia Schmitz in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
                        |    |--*T. glomerulata (Agardh) Schmitz 1897W03 [=Hutchinsia glomerulata Agardh 1824HL09]
                        |    |--T. calodictyon (Kützing) Silva 1952HS14
                        |    `--T. penningtonensis Womersley 2003W03
                        |--Neosiphonia Kim & Lee 1999W03
                        |    |--N. japonicaL10
                        |    |--N. poko (Hollenberg) Abbott in Abbott et al. 2002 [=Polysiphonia poko Hollenberg 1968]HL09
                        |    `--N. savatieriCK02
                        |--Echinothamnion Kylin 1956W03
                        |    |--*E. hystrix (Hooker & Harvey) Kylin 1956 (see below for synonymy)W03
                        |    |--E. hookeri (Harvey) Kylin ex Silva in Silva et al. 1996 (see below for synonymy)W03
                        |    `--E. mallardiae (see below for synonymy)W03
                        `--Lophurella Schmitz in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
                             |--*L. periclados (Sonder) Schmitz in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 (see below for synonymy)W03
                             |--L. caespitosa (Hooker & Harvey) Falkenberg 1901W03
                             |--L. comosa (Hooker & Harvey) Falkenberg 1901W03 [=Rhodomela comosa Hooker & Harvey 1845L27]
                             `--L. hookeriana (Agardh) Falkenberg 1901W03 [=Rhodomela hookerianaL27]
Rhodomelaceae incertae sedis:
  *Bryocladia cervicornisW03
  Periphykon Weber-von Bosse 1929W03
    `--‘Protokuetzingia’ schottiiW03
  Kentrophora Wilson & Kraft in Henderson et al. 2001 [=Plectrophora Wilson & Kraft 2000]W03
    |--‘Kuetzingia’ natalensisW03
    `--‘Kuetzingia’ pectinella (Harvey) Falkenberg 1901W03
  Wilsonaea Schmitz 1893W03
    `--*W. dictyuroides (Agardh) Schmitz 1893 [=Dasya dictyuroides Agardh 1890]W03
  Halydictyon Zanardini 1843 [=Halodictyon (l. c.)]W03
    |--*H. mirabile Zanardini 1860W03
    `--H. arachnoideum (Harvey) Harvey 1858 (see below for synonymy)W03
  Chamaethamnion Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
    |--*C. schizandra Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
    `--C. pocockiae Norris 1988W03
  Tylocolax Schmitz in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
    `--*T. microcarpus Schmitz in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
  Amplisiphonia Hollenberg 1939W03
    `--A. pacifica Hollenberg 1939W03
  Placophora Agardh 1863W03
    |--*P. binderi (Agardh) Agardh 1963 [=Amansia binderi Agardh 1841]W03
    `--P. eckloniaeW03
    |--Ophidocladus Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
    |    `--*O. simpliciusculus (Crouan & Crouan) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 (see below for synonymy)W03
    `--Lophosiphonia Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
         |--*L. obscura (Agardh) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 (see below for synonymy)W03
         |--L. macra (Hooker & Harvey) Falkenberg 1901 [=Polysiphonia macra]L27
         |--L. prostrata (Harvey) Falkenberg 1901 (see below for synonymy)W03
         `--L. villum (Agardh) Setchell & Gardner 1903S57
    |--Cladurus Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897W03
    |    `--*C. elatus (Sonder) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |--Husseya Agardh 1901 (nom. cons.) [incl. Husseyella Papenfuss 1958]W03
    |    `--H. rubra (Harvey) Silva in Silva et al. 1996 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |    |--*C. oblongifolia Hooker & Harvey 1845L27
    |    `--C. lyallii Harvey 1847L27
    |--Acanthophora Lamouroux 1813W03
    |    |--*A. spicifera (Vahl) Børgesen 1910W03 [=Fucus spiciferus Vahl 1802HL09]
    |    |--A. dendroides Harvey 1855W03
    |    `--A. muscoides (Linnaeus) Bory 1828HS14 [=Chondria muscoidesBS-V28, Fucus muscoidesBS-V28]
    `--Coeloclonium Agardh 1876W03
         |--C. tasmanicum (Harvey) Womersley 2003 (see below for synonymy)W03
         |--C. debile (Harvey) Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 (see below for synonymy)W03
         |--C. umbellula (Harvey) Agardh 1876 [=Chondria umbellula Harvey 1855]W03
         `--C. verticillatum (Harvey) Agardh 1876 [=Chondria verticillata Harvey 1855]W03
  Pterochondria woodii (Harvey) Hollenberg 1942 [=Pterosiphonia woodii]S57
    |--O. dentataG64
    |--O. floccosa (Esper) Falkenberg 1901N10 [=Rhodomela floccosaS57]
    |--O. kamtschatica (Ruprecht) Agardh 1863S57
    |--O. lyallii (Harvey) Agardh 1863 [=Rhodomela lyallii]S57
    `--O. washingtoniensis Kylin 1925S57
    |--N. aculeataKY97
    |--N. larix (Turner) Masuda 1982 [=Rhodomela larix (Turner) Agardh 1822]N10
    `--N. sachalinensisL10
  Digenia simplexHK90
  Neurymenia fraxinifoliaHK90
    |--R. complanataG64
    |--R. fruticulosaG64
    |--R. pinastroidesG64
    `--R. thuyoidesG64
    |--O. elongataG64
    |--O. elongellaG64
    |--O. fibrataG64
    |--O. fibrillosaG64
    |--O. formosaG64
    |--O. griffithsianaG64
    |--O. pulvinataG64
    |--O. spinulosa [incl. Polysiphonia richardsonii]G64
    `--O. violaceaG64
  Dasyclonia byssoidesG64
  Vertebralia fastigiata [=Polysiphonia fastigiata]G64
  Acrocystis nana Zanardini 1872HS14
  Digenea simplex (Wulfen) Agardh 1822HS14
  Exophyllum wentii Weber-van Bosse 1911HS14
    |--P. parvipapillata (Tseng) Nam 2007HS14
    `--P. perforata (Bory) Nam 2007HS14

*Alleynea bicornis Womersley 2003 [=Polysiphonia bicornis Sonder 1880 (n. n.), Pterosiphonia bicornis Shepherd & Womersley 1981 (n. n.), Rytiphloea bicornis ms]W03

*Chiracanthia arborea (Harvey) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 [=Acanthophora arborea Harvey 1859; incl. Rhodomela muelleri Sonder 1880 (n. n.), Polysiphonia valida Agardh 1896, Chiracanthia valida (Agardh) Falkenberg 1901]W03

Chondrophycus paniculatus (Agardh) Furnari in Boisset et al. 2000 [=Chondria obtusa var. paniculata Agardh 1822, Laurencia paniculata (Agardh) Agardh 1852]W03

*Cladurus elatus (Sonder) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 [=Rhodomela elata Sonder 1853, Halopithys elata (Sonder) Kützing 1865, Rytiphlaea elata (Sonder) Harvey 1855; incl. Ry. umbellifera Agardh 1894]W03

Coeloclonium debile (Harvey) Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987 [=Chondria debilis Harvey 1863, Chondriopsis debilis (Harvey) Agardh 1892]W03

Coeloclonium tasmanicum (Harvey) Womersley 2003 [=Chylocladia tasmanica Harvey 1844; incl. Catenella major Sonder 1845, Coeloclonium major (Sonder) Silva in Silva et al. 1996, Chylocladia opuntioides Harvey 1855, Chondria opuntioides (Harvey) Harvey 1859, *Coeloclonium opuntioides (Harvey) Agardh 1876, Rhabdonia sonderi Agardh 1851]W03

*Diplocladia patersonis (Sonder) Kylin 1956 [=Polysiphonia patersonis Sonder 1855, Brongniartella patersonis (Sonder) de Toni 1903; incl. P. spinosissima Harvey 1859, B. spinosissima (Harvey) Falkenberg 1901]W03

Echinothamnion hookeri (Harvey) Kylin ex Silva in Silva et al. 1996 [=Polysiphonia hookeri Harvey 1847; incl. P. acanthophora Harvey 1844, P. dasyoides Zanardini 1874]W03

*Echinothamnion hystrix (Hooker & Harvey) Kylin 1956 [=Polysiphonia hystrix Hooker & Harvey 1847; incl. P. polyphora Kützing 1849]W03

Echinothamnion mallardiae [=Polysiphonia mallardiae Harvey in Hooker & Harvey 1845, Rhodomela mallardiae Harvey in Hooker & Harvey 1845]W03

Halydictyon arachnoideum (Harvey) Harvey 1858 [=Hanowia arachnoidea Harvey 1855; incl. Hanowia robusta Harvey 1855, Halodictyon robustum (Harvey) Harvey 1858, Halodictyon velatum Reinbold 1897]W03

*Heterocladia australis Decaisne 1842W03 [=Trigenea australis Sonder 1845L27; incl. Coeloclonium gracilipes Agardh 1897W03, Dolichoscelis gracilipes (Agardh) Agardh 1899W03, Heterocladia prolifera Decaisne ex Kützing 1849 (nom. illeg.)W03]

Heterocladia caudata Phillips, Choi et al. 2000 [incl. Trigenia caudata Sonder 1845, Rhodomela trigenia Harvey 1860]W03

Heterocladia umbellifera (Zanardini) Womersley 2003 [=Corallopsis umbellifera Zanardini 1874; incl. Chondriopsis cartilaginea Agardh 1892, Chondria cartilaginea (Agardh) de Toni 1903, Trigenia umbellata Agardh 1890, Heterocladia umbellata (Agardh) Phillips et al. 2000]W03

Husseya rubra (Harvey) Silva in Silva et al. 1996 [=Chondria rubra Harvey 1863, Husseyella rubra (Harvey) Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1984, Rhododactylis rubra (Harvey) Agardh 1876; incl. *Husseya australis Agardh 1901, Husseyella australis (Agardh) Papenfuss 1958, Laurencia casuarina Agardh 1896, Rytiphlaea compressa Agardh 1885, Chondriopsis corallorhiza Agardh 1885, Chondria corallorhiza (Agardh) Falkenberg 1901, Rhodomela erinacea Agardh 1885]W03

*Lophosiphonia obscura (Agardh) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 [=Hutchinsia obscura Agardh 1828; incl. Polysiphonia subadunca Kützing 1843, Lophosiphonia subadunca (Kützing) Falkenberg 1901]W03

Lophosiphonia prostrata (Harvey) Falkenberg 1901 [=Polysiphonia prostrata Harvey 1855, Falkenbergiella prostrata (Harvey) Kylin 1938]W03

*Lophurella periclados (Sonder) Schmitz in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 [=Rhodomela periclados Sonder 1855; incl. R. simpliciuscula (n. n.)]W03

Ophidocladus simpliciusculus (Crouan & Crouan) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897 [=Polysiphonia simpliciuscula Crouan & Crouan 1852; incl. P. obscura Harvey 1855]W03

*Perrinia ericoides (Harvey) Womersley 2003 [=Polysiphonia ericoides Harvey in Hooker & Harvey 1847, Bryocladia ericoides (Harvey) Schmitz in Falkenberg 1901]W03

*Pityophycos tasmanica (Sonder) Papenfuss 1958 [=Acanthophora tasmanica Sonder 1853, Pithyopsis tasmanica (Sonder) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897, Polysiphonia tasmanica (Sonder) Agardh 1863; incl. Dictyomenia myriacantha Kützing 1864]W03

*Sonderella linearis (Harvey) Schmitz 1899 [=Amansia linearis Harvey 1859, Lenormandia linearis (Harvey) Agardh 1863]P01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS-V28] Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. 1828. Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique. Cryptogamie. Arthus Bertrand: Paris.

[CK02] Choi, H.-G., G. T. Kraft, I. K. Lee & G. W. Saunders. 2002. Phylogenetic analyses of anatomical and nuclear SSU rDNA sequence data indicate that the Dasyaceae and Delesseriaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) are polyphyletic. European Journal of Phycology 37: 551–569.

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[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[HK90] Huisman, J. M., G. A. Kendrick, D. I. Walker & A. Couté. 1990. The marine algae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 89–100. Western Australian Museum.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[KY97] Kogame, K., & Y. Yamagishi. 1997. The life history and phenology of Colpomenia peregrina (Scytosiphonales, Phaeophyceae) from Japan. Phycologia 36 (5): 337–344.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[L10] Levenets, I. R. 2010. Macroalgae of fouling, scallop epibiosis and benthos in the southern Primorye, Sea of Japan. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 208–213. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Liu, M., P. E. Hansen & X. Lin. 2011. Bromophenols in marine algae and their bioactivities. Marine Drugs 9: 1273–1292.

Masuda, M. 1982. A systematic study of the tribe Rhodomeleae (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta). Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series 5: Botany 12 (4): 209–400.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[P01] Phillips, L. E. 2001. Morphology and molecular analysis of the Australasian monotypic genera Lembergia and Sonderella (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta), with a description of the tribe Sonderelleae trib. nov. Phycologia 40 (5): 487–499.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

Sonder, O. G. 1846–1848. Algae L. Agardh. In: Lehmann, C. Plantae Preissianae sive Enumeratio Plantarum quas in Australasia occidentali et meridionali-occidentali annis 1838-1841 collegit Ludovicus Preiss, Phil. Dr. Acad. Caesar. Leopold, Carol. Natur. Curios. et Reg. Societ. Bot. Ratisbonens, Sodalis, cet. vol. 2 pp. 148–160 (1846), 161–195 (1848). Meissner: Hamburg.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophytapart IIID. CeramialesDelesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

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