Rhodophyta

Galdieria sulphuraria, from Van Etten (2020).

Belongs within: Diaphoretickes.
Contains: Proteorhodophytina, Bangiales, Florideophycidae.

The Rhodophyta include the red algae, a major group of aquatic photosynthetic organisms. Many red algae are multicellular (forming the clade Eurhodophytina) but the taxon also includes a number of unicellular or filamentous lineages. Cells lack cilia and associated organelles at all stages of the life cycle (Adl et al. 2019).

Characters (from Adl et al. 2019): Red algae without ciliated stages, and without centrioles, or basal bodies, or other 9 + 2 microtubular structures—presence of polar
rings instead; two-membraned simple chloroplasts, unstacked thylakoids with phycobilisomes, and chlorophyll a only, lacking external endoplasmic reticulum; cytoplasmic carbohydrate reserve floridean starch; chromosomal and interzonal microtubules not converging towards polar rings, so spindle poles very broad; telophase spindle and nuclear envelope persisting with closed mitosis surrounded by perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum; cell wall of cellulose; cells in filamentous forms linked by pit plugs, formed between cells after incomplete cell division; sexual reproduction typically oogamous; triphasic life history common.

<==Rhodophyta [Bangiophycidae, Rhodophyceae, Rhodophycophyta, Rhodoplantae]YM06
    |--RhodophytinaYM06
    |    |--ProteorhodophytinaAB19
    |    `--Eurhodophytina [Macrorhodophytina]AB19
    |         |--BangialesC-S98
    |         `--FlorideophycidaeC-SCL15
    `--Cyanidiales [Cyanidiophyceae, Cyanidiophyta, Cyanidiophytina]YM06
         |--CyanidiaceaeYM06
         |    |--Cyanidium caldariumYM06
         |    `--+--Cyanidioschyzon merolaeYM06
         |       `--'Galdieria’ maximaYM06
         `--Galdieria [Galdieriaceae]YM06
              |  i. s.: G. merolaeC-SCL15
              |--G. sulphurariaYM06
              `--+--G. daedalaYM06
                 `--G. partitaYM06
Rhodophyta incertae sedis:
  Smithora naiadumHSA03
  Schottera nicaeensisW03
  Californiella Poncet 1987VH01
  GymnocodiaceaeVH01
    |--Corallinites galaxauraE56
    |--GymnocodiumVH01
    |    |--G. bellerophontisE56
    |    |--G. exile Mu 1981VH01
    |    `--G. nummuliticumE56
    `--Permocalculus Elliott 1955E56
         |--P. digitatusE56
         |--P. iagifuensis Simmons & Johnston 1991EB93
         |--P. inopinatus Elliott 1956E56
         |--P. solidusE56
         `--P. tenellusEB93
  Goniotrichum [Goniotrichaceae, Goniotrichales]S57
    `--G. cornu-cervi (Reinsch) Hauck 1885S57
  ‘Diplocystis’ Agardh 1896 nec Berkeley & Curtis 1869 nec Künstler 1887 (ICZN)FT93
  Cruoriella Crouan 1859K98
    `--C. japonica (Segawa) Denizot 1968 [=Cruoriopsis japonica Segawa 1941]K98
  Cruoriopsis aestuariiK98
  ‘Pustularia’ Vologdin 1955 nec Swainson 1840 (ICZN) nec Bonord. 1851 nec Gray 1858 (ICZN) nec Fuckel 1870G79
    `--*P. taeniata Vologdin 1955G79
  Rubellophyton Vologdin 1966G79
    `--*R. rameus Vologdin 1966G79
  Wurdemannia miniataN10
  Curdiea racovitzaeN10
  Petroglossum nicaeensePP64
  Alsidium helminthochortonPP64
  Halophytis incurvusPP64
  Callithamniella tinginataPP64
  Halarachnion spatulatumPP64
  Cordylophora erectaPP64
  Rythiphlaca tinctoriaPP64
  Calocladia Grev. 1836KC01
  Cyanoderma Weber Bosse 1887KC01
  Leptocladia Agardh 1892KC01
  Muda Adans. 1763 (n. d.)KC01
  Sonderopelta coriaceaBRW98
  Corynomorpha [Corynomorphaceae]HS14
    `--C. prismatica (Agardh) Agardh 1876HS14

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203–266.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[E56] Elliott, G. F. 1956. Galaxaura (calcareous algae) and similar fossil genera. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (11): 341–343.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[HSA03] Huisman, J. M., A. R. Sherwood & I. A. Abbott. 2003. Morphology, reproduction, and the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), the so-called ‘monosporangial discs’ associated with members of the Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta), and proposal of the Pihiellales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology 39: 978–987.

[K98] Kaehler, S. 1998. The non-coralline epilithic encrusting algae of Hong Kong II: additions and identification. Asian Marine Biology 15: 1–17.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[VH01] Vachard, D., M. Hauser, R. Martini, L. Zaninetti, A. Matter & T. Peters. 2001. New algae and problematica of algal affinity from the Permian of the Aseelah Unit of the Batain Plain (East Oman). Geobios 34 (4): 375–404.

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

[YM06] Yoon, H. S., K. M. Müller, R. G. Sneath, F. D. Ott & D. Bhattacharya. 2006. Defining the major lineages of red algae (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 42 (2): 482–492.

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