Champia parvula, copyright Pauline Poisson.

Belongs within: Florideophycidae.
Contains: Rhodymenia.

The Rhodymeniales are marine red algae in which carpogonial branches are borne in association with auxiliary cell branches on inner cortical cells.

Characters (from Womersley 1996): Thallus usually erect, foliose to complanately or radially branched, branches terete to compressed or flat, solid or hollow and often segmented; some genera parasitic, minute, pulvinate or lobed. Structure multiaxial, pseudoparenchymatous, developing a small-celled cortex and larger-celled medulla, often with secretory cells on inner cells; hollow genera often with longitudinal filaments within the medulla, in some families with transverse diaphragms or partitions. Pit-plugs without cap layers. Gametangial thalli usually dioecious, procarpic. Carpogonial branches 3- or 4-celled, borne on inner cortical cells together with 2- (or 3-) celled auxiliary cell branches, with the auxiliary initial often being a cortical cell; auxiliary cells produced before fertilization but usually maturing afterwards, often containing a spherical proteinaceous globule; diploid nucleus transferred to auxiliary cell directly or via a connecting cell. Carposporophyte developing outwards, with a basal, erect, fusion cell(s) and with most gonimoblast cells, or only the terminal ones, becoming carposporangia; basal nutritive tissue present or not, with numerous connections to the auxiliary initial cell or supporting cell, with erect filaments of cells from the nutritive tissue to the pericarp remaining as the “tela arachnoidea” of slender elongate cells, or as more or less separated stellate cells around the developing carposporophyte, or in many genera disintegrating. Cystocarps protuberant or largely immersed, with a well-developed pericarp, usually ostiolate. Spermatangia cut off from surface cortical cells via initials. Tetrasporangia cut off laterally or terminally from mid cortical cells, or transformed from cortical cells, cruciately, decussately or tetrahedrally divided. Life history triphasic, with isomorphic gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

<==Rhodymeniales [Lomentariaceae]
    |  i. s.: Erythrocolon podagricumSK02
    |         Erythrymenia minutaSK02
    |         Hymenocladiopsis crustigenaHSA03
    |         Sparlingia pertusaHSA03
    |--Champiaceae [Lomentarieae]HL09
    |    |--GastrocloniumS57
    |    |    |--G. clavatumPP64
    |    |    |--G. coulteri (Harvey) Kylin 1931 [=Lomentaria ovalis var. coulteri]S57
    |    |    `--G. ovatumHSA03 [=Lomentaria ovalisG64]
    |    |--LomentariaG64
    |    |    |--L. articulataG03
    |    |    |--L. hakodatensisN10
    |    |    |--L. kaliformisG64
    |    |    `--L. reflexaG64
    |    `--Champia Desvaux 1809HL09
    |         |--C. affinisMS02
    |         |--C. compressaHK90
    |         |--C. novae-zelandiaeL27
    |         |    |--C. n. var. novae-zelandiaeL27
    |         |    `--C. n. var. tumescens Laing 1902L27
    |         |--C. parvula (Agardh) Harvey 1853 [=Chondria parvula Agardh 1824]HL09
    |         `--C. stipitata Huisman 2000HS14
    `--Rhodymeniaceae [Hymenocladiaceae]HL09
         |--Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell 1923S57
         |--Fryeella gardneri (Setchell) Kylin 1931 [=Fauchea gardneri, Rhodymenia gardneri]S57
         |--Rhodymeniocolax botryoidea Setchell 1923S57
         |--Gloiohymenia ornata (Montagne) Agardh 1899L27
         |--Asteromenia Huisman & Millar 1996HL09
         |--Wormskioldia sanguineaG64
         |--Cordylocladia erecta [=Gracilaria erecta]G64
         |--Gloiodermatopsis Lindauer 1949L49
         |    `--*G. setchellii Lindauer 1949L49
         |--Ceratodictyon Zanardini 1878HL09
         |    |--C. intricatum (Agardh) Norris 1987HS14
         |    |--C. scoparium (Montagne & Millardet) Norris 1987HS14
         |    `--C. spongiosum Zanardini 1878HL09
         |--Coelothrix Børgesen 1920HL09
         |    `--C. irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen 1920 [=Cordylocladia irregularis Harvey 1853]HL09
         |--Gelidiopsis Schmitz 1895HL09
         |    `--G. intricata (Agardh) Vickers 1905 [=Sphaerococcus intricatus Agardh 1822]HL09
         |--Chamaebotrys Huisman 1996HL09
         |    |--C. boergesenii (Wber-van Bosse) Huisman 1996 [=Coelarthrum boergesenii Weber-van Bosse 1928]HL09
         |    `--C. lomentariaeD03
         |    |--H. chondricolaHSA03
         |    |--H. lanceolata Agardh 1870L27
         |    `--H. polymorpha (Harvey) Agardh 1870 [=Rhodymenia polymorpha Harvey 1860]L27
         |    |--E. acuta Hooker & Harvey 1855L27
         |    |--E. obtusa (Greville) Kützing 1849L27
         |    `--E. wilsonis Sonder 1853L27
         |    |--C. asperata (Hooker & Harvey) Cotton 1909 [=Callophyllis asperata; incl. Ch. apiculifera Agardh 1876]L27
         |    |--C. polydactyla Hooker & Harvey 1855L27
         |    `--C. saccata Agardh 1899L27
         |    |--C. clavellosa [=Chrysymenia clavellosa]G64
         |    |--C. rosea [=Chrysymenia rosea]G64
         |    |--C. secunda Hooker & Harvey 1855l27
         |    |--C. umbellata Hooker & Harvey 1855 [=Lomentaria umbellata]L27
         |    `--C. uncinataL27
         |    |--B. leptopoda (Agardh) Kylin 1931HS14
         |    |--B. neushuliiN10
         |    |--B. pseudodichotoma (Farlow) Kylin 1931 [=Chrysmenia pseudodichotoma]S57
         |    |--B. sonderiG05
         |    `--B. uvaroidesLA03
         |    |--F. coronata (Harvey) Agardh 1876 [=Callophyllis coronata Harvey 1859]L27
         |    |--F. fryeana Setchell 1912S57
         |    |--F. hoshawsiiN10
         |    |--F. laciniata Agardh 1884S57
         |    `--F. repensHSA03
         `--Coelarthrum opuntia (Endlicher) Børgesen 1937HS14

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D03] David, J. C. 2003. Orthographic conundrums: the problem of –opsis and -botrys. Taxon 52: 603–608.

[G03] Gnilovskaya, M. B. 2003. The oldest tissue differentiation in Precambrian (Vendian) algae. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2003 (2): 92–98 (translated: Paleontological Journal 37 (2): 196–204).

[G05] Goldberg, N. A. 2005. Temporal variation in subtidal macroalgal assemblages at Black Island, Recherche Archipelago. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (2): 65–71.

[G64] Gray, J. E. 1864. Handbook of British Water-weeds or Algae. R. Hardwicke: London.

[HK90] Huisman, J. M., G. A. Kendrick, D. I. Walker & A. Couté. 1990. The marine algae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 89–100. Western Australian Museum.

[HL09] Huisman, J. M., F. Leliaert, H. Veerbruggen & R. A. Townsend. 2009. Marine benthic plants of Western Australia’s shelf-edge atolls. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 50–87.

[HS14] Huisman, J. M., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: marine plants. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 45–67.

[HSA03] Huisman, J. M., A. R. Sherwood & I. A. Abbott. 2003. Morphology, reproduction, and the 18S rRNA gene sequence of Pihiella liagoraciphila gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), the so-called ‘monosporangial discs’ associated with members of the Liagoraceae (Rhodophyta), and proposal of the Pihiellales ord. nov. Journal of Phycology 39: 978–987.

[L27] Laing, R. M. 1927. A reference list of New Zealand marine algae. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 126–185.

[L49] Lindauer, V. W. 1949. Additions to the marine algae of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 390–393.

[LA03] Longet, D., J. M. Archibald, P. J. Keeling & J. Pawlowski. 2003. Foraminifera and Cercozoa share a common origin according to RNA polymerase II phylogenies. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1735–1739.

[MS02] Müller, K. M., A. R. Sherwood, C. M. Pueschel, R. R. Gutell & R. G. Sheath. 2002. A proposal for a new red algal order, the Thoreales. Journal of Phycology 38: 807–820.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[SK02] Saunders, G. W., & G. T. Kraft. 2002. Two new Australian species of Predaea (Nemastomataceae, Rhodophyta) with taxonomic recommendations for an expanded Nemastomatales and expanded Halymeniales. Journal of Phycology 38: 1245–1260.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

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