Smooth sumac Rhus glabra, photographed by Richtid.

Belongs within: Anacardiaceae.

Rhus, the sumacs, is a genus of shrubs and small trees found in subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The fruits of some species, such as the tanner’s sumac R. coriaria, are used for spice. However, others such as the poison ivy R. toxicodendron can cause a severe allergic reaction. Rhus coriaria has also been used as a tanning agent or a source for dye.

Characters (from Flora of China): Deciduous shrubs or trees, polygamous or dioecious. Leaves imparipinnately compound; leaf rachis sometimes winged; leaflets petiolate or sessile, with serrate or entire margin. Inflorescence terminal, paniculate or thyrsoid, floral subtending bracts persistent or deciduous. Flowers functionally unisexual or bisexual, 5-merous. Ovary 1-locular and 1-ovulate; styles 3, often united basally. Drupe globose, slightly compressed, mixed glandular pubescent and pilose, red at maturity; exocarp and mesocarp united; mesocarp glutinous, red.

    `--R. sect. StyphoniaM69
         |--R. kearneyiM69
         |    |--R. k. ssp. kearneyiM69
         |    |--R. k. ssp. borjaensis Moran 1969M69
         |    `--R. k. ssp. virginum Moran 1969M69
         |--R. muelleriM69
         `--R. standleyiM69
Rhus incertae sedis:
  R. ambigua [incl. R. toxicodendron var. radicans]LO98
  R. antiguaGT02
  R. caudataH03
  R. copallinaMS06
  R. coriariaR-CT01
  R. glabraB75
  R. glaucescensBBO01
  R. integrifoliaB38
  R. javanica [incl. R. semialata]LO98
  R. lanceaBBO01
  R. lucidumA81
  R. mysorensisBBO01
  R. ovataH93
  R. problematodesCV06
  R. sylvestris [=R. silvestris]LO98
  R. toxicodendronC55
  R. trilobata (see below for synonymy)H93
  R. tripartitaRBA00
  R. typhinaNDA05
  R. vernicifluaLO98
  R. vernixV72
  R. volkiiCV06

Rhus trilobata [incl. R. trilobata var. anisophylla, R. trilobata var. malacophylla, R. trilobata var. quinata]H93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A81] Adler, H. 1881. Les Cynipides. 1re partie. Introduction. La génération alternante chez les cynipides, traduit et annoté par J. Lichtenstein, suivi de la classification des cynipides d’après le Dr G. Mayr. C. Coulet: Montpellier.

[BBO01] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Muribasidiospora: Microstromatales or Exobasidiales? Mycological Research 105 (7): 798–810.

[B38] Blackman, M. W. 1938. New species of Cactopinus Schwarz (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (6): 151–157.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[GT02] Gomez, B., F. Thévenard, M. Fantin & L. Guisberti. 2002. Late Cretaceous plants from the Bonarelli Level of the Venetian Alps, northeastern Italy. Cretaceous Research 23: 671–685.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[M69] Moran, R. 1969. Twelve new dicots from Baja California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 15 (17): 265–295.

[MS06] Muellner, A. N., V. Savolainen, R. Samuel & M. W. Chase. 2006. The mahogany family “out-of-Africa”: divergence time estimation, global biogeographic patterns inferred from plastid rbcL DNA sequences, extant, and fossil distribution of diversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 236–250.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the “Maltese mushroom” Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[RBA00] Rifai, L. B., M. Abu Baker & Z. S. Amr. 2000. Ecology, distribution and status of the rock hyrax, Procavia capensis syriaca, in Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 19–26.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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