Rhynchonellida

 Rhynchopora sp., photographed by Neron.

Belongs within: Rhynchonellata.
Contains: Atriboniidae, Stenoscismatidae, Dimerellidae, Norellidae, Rhynchotrematidae, Trigonirhynchidae, Eatoniidae, Uncinulidae, Rhynchonellidae, Oligorhynchiidae, Pugnacidae, Camarotoechiidae, Yunnanellidae, Wellerellidae, Basiliolidae, Hemithyrididae, Frieleiidae, Leptocoeliidae, Allorhynchiidae.

The Rhynchonellida are a lineage of brachiopods that are first known from the Middle Ordovician, surviving into the present day (Ager et al. 1965). Members of the Middle Devonian to Upper Permian Stenoscismatacea possessed an elongate trough-shaped structure, called the camarophorium, on a high median septum duplex in the brachial valve, and typically also possessed a spondylium in the pedicle valve. The Rhynchonellacea lack a camarophorium, and commonly also lack a spondylium. Both are also absent in the Carboniferous to Permian genus Rhynchopora, which possesses a punctate shell in contrast to the impunctate shell of Rhynchonellacea (Ager et al. 1965).

Characters (from Ager et al. 1965): Articulate brachiopods, usually with rostrate shell, functional pedicle developed, delthyrium partially closed by deltidial plates. Mantle canals much branched, with one pair of main trunks in each mantle. Median septum commonly supporting septalium or hinge plates in brachial valve; dental plates usually present; spondylia normally absent. Recent representatives mostly with two pairs of metanephridia, lophophore spirolophous, with ventrodorsally directed cones supported by crura. Shell substance normally impunctate, rarely with inner fibrous layer punctate.

<==Rhynchonellida
| i. s.: Oligoptycherhynchus Sartenaer 1970RG04
| |--*O. daleidensis (Roemer 1844)RG04
| `--O. hexatomaRG04
| |--O. h. hexatomaRG04
| `--O. h. wetteldorfensis (Schmidt 1941)RG04
| Uncinuloides King 1931AG65
| `--*U. guadelupae (Shumard 1858) [=Rhynchonella guadelupae, U. guadelupensis King 1931]AG65
| Disphenia [Dispheniidae]HB93
| `--D. myiodes Grant 1988HB93
|--Stenoscismatoidea [Camerophoriacea, Stenoscismacea, Stenoscismatacea]HB93
| |--AtriboniidaeAG65
| `--StenoscismatidaeAG65
|--DimerelloideaHB93
| |--DimerellidaeAG65
| `--NorellidaeHB93
|--RhynchotrematoideaRG04
| |--RhynchotrematidaeAG65
| `--TrigonirhynchidaeRG04
|--UncinuloideaRG04
| |--EatoniidaeRG04
| `--UncinulidaeAG65
|--Rhynchoporoidea [Rhynchoporacea]HB93
| |--Aratella [Aratellidae]HB93
| | |--A. aratica (Abrahamians 1957)HB93
| | `--A. dichotomians (Abrahamians 1954)HB93
| `--Rhynchopora King 1865 [=Rhynchoporina Oehlert 1887; Rhynchoporidae]AG65
| |--*R. geinitziana (de Verneuil 1845) [=Terebratula geinitziana, *Rhynchoporina geinitziana]AG65
| |--R. basedowi Etheridge 1918F71
| |--R. beecheriB86
| |--R. depressaG31
| |--R. emeritaG31
| |--R. morini (Drot 1964)HB93
| |--R. nikitiniG31
| |--R. variabilisG31
| `--R. wynneiG31
`--Rhynchonelloidea [Rhynchonellacea]HB93
| i. s.: Diabolirhynchia Drot 1964M65
| `--*D. hollardi Drot 1964M65
| Dorsisinus Sanders 1958AG65
| `--*D. louisianensis (Weller 1914) [=Centronella louisianensis]AG65
| Ladogifornix Schmidt 1964AG65
| `--*L. fornicata (Schnur 1853) [=Terebratula fornix]AG65
| Laosia Mansuy 1913AG65
| `--*L. dussaulti Mansuy 1913AG65
| Leiorhynchoides Dovgal 1953AG65
| `--*L. gratianovae Dovgal 1953AG65
| Lissopleura Whitfield 1896AG65
| `--*L. aequivalvis (Hall 1857) [=Rhynchonella aequivalvis]AG65
| Monadotoechia Havlíček 1960AG65
| |--*M. monas (Barrande 1847) [=Terebratula monas]AG65
| `--M. monadinaAG65
| Nantanella Grabau 1936AG65
| `--*N. mapingensis Grabau 1936AG65
| Nemesa Schmidt 1941AG65
| `--*N. nemesana Schmidt 1941AG65
| Nyege Veevers 1959AG65
| `--*N. scopimus Veevers 1959AG65
| Payuella Grabau 1934AG65
| `--*P. obscura Grabau 1934AG65
| Phoenitoechia Havlíček 1960AG65
| `--*P. phoenix (Barrande 1847) [=Terebratula phoenix]AG65
| Pleiopleurina Schmidt 1964AG65
| `--*P. pleiopleura (Conrad 1841) [=Atrypa pleiopleura]AG65
| Praegnantenia Havlíček 1961AG65
| `--*P. praegnans (Barrande 1847) [=Terebratula praegnans]AG65
| Protorhyncha Hall & Clarke 1893AG65
| `--*P. dubia (Hall 1847) [=Atrypa dubia]AG65
| Straelenia Maillieux 1935 [incl. Dinapophysia Maillieux 1935]AG65
| `--*S. dunensis (Drevermann 1902) (see below for synonymy)AG65
| Zilimia Nalivkin 1947AG65
| |--*Z. polonica (Gürich 1896) [=Rhynchonella polonica]AG65
| `--Z. mugodjaricaAG65
| Basilicorhynchus Crickmay 1952AG65
| `--*B. basilicum (Crickmay 1952) [=Leiorhynchus basilicum]AG65
| Ladogioides McLaren 1961 [incl. Athabaschia Crickmay 1963]AG65
| |--*L. pax McLarren 1961AG65
| |--L. asmenista (Crickmay 1963)NU83
| |--L. kakwaensisNU83
| `--L. mollicomus Crickmay 1963NU83
| Linguopugnoides Havlíček 1960AG65
| `--*L. carens (Barrande 1879) [=Rhynchonella nympha carens]AG65
| Trifidorostellum Sartenaer 1961 [incl. Pseudoleiorhynchus Rozman 1962]AG65
| |--*T. dunbarense (Haynes 1916) [=Leiorhynchus dunbarense]AG65
| `--‘Leiorhynchus’ uralicus Nalivkin 1947 [=*Pseudoleiorhynchus uralicus]AG65
|--RhynchonellidaeAG65
|--OligorhynchiidaeAG65
|--PugnacidaeAG65
|--CamarotoechiidaeAG65
|--YunnanellidaeAG65
|--WellerellidaeAG65
|--BasiliolidaeAG65
|--HemithyrididaeAG65
|--FrieleiidaeAG65
|--LeptocoeliidaeHB93
|--AllorhynchiidaeHB93
|--Camerophorina Schmidt 1941 [Camarophorinidae, Camerophorinidae]AG65
| |--C. bijugata (Schnur 1851)HB93
| `--C. pachyderma (Quenstedt 1871)HB93
|--Erymnaria Cooper 1959 [Erymnariidae]AG65
| |--*E. polymorpha (Massalongo 1850) [=Terebratula polymorpha]AG65
| `--E. cubensis Cooper 1959HB93
|--Pygmaella [Pygmaellidae]HB93
| |--P. orbiculata Baranov 1977HB93
| `--P. pygmaea Baranov 1977HB93
|--PhoenicitoechiidaeHB93
| |--Phoenicitoechia phoenix (Barrande 1847)HB93
| `--Kotysex simulans (Barrande 1879)HB93
|--RozmanariidaeHB93
| |--Rackirhynchia lacerata (Barrande 1879)HB93
| `--Hadyrhyncha hadyensis Havlíček 1979HB93
|--AntistrixidaeHB93
| |--Antistrixia invicta Johnson 1972HB93
| `--Kindleina suemezensis Savage, Erberlein & Churkin 1978HB93
|--Amphipella [Amphidellidae]HB93
| |--A. arcaria Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
| `--A. attenuata Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
|--PetasmatheridaeHB93
| |--Iotina minuta Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
| `--Petasmatherus opulus Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
|--Septirhynchia Muir-Wood 1935 [Septirhynchiidae]AG65
| |--*S. azaisi (Cottreau 1924) [=Rhynchonella azaisi]AG65
| |--S. budulcaensis (Steffanini 1932)HB93
| `--S. hirschi Feldman 1987HB93
|--InnaechiidaeHB93
| |--Alekseevaella salagaensis (Rzonsnickaja 1967)HB93
| `--Lepidocycloides Nikiforova 1961HB93, AG65
| `--*L. baikiticus Nikiforova 1961AG65
|--CardiarinidaeHB93
| |--Loborina lobata Balinski 1982HB93
| |--Lambdarina iota Grant 1988HB93
| `--Cardiarina Cooper 1956AG65
| `--*C. cordata Cooper 1956AG65
|--PlectorhynchellidaeM03
| |--Sibiritoechia Alekseeva 1966M03
| | `--S. convexa Alekseeva 1966 [incl. S. lata Alekseeva 1966, S. oblonga Alekseeva 1966]M03
| `--Plectorhynchella Cooper & Muir-Wood 1951 [=Monticola Nalivkin 1930 non Boie 1822]AG65
| |--*P. collinensis (Frech 1902) [=Athyris collinensis, *Monticola collinensis]AG65
| `--P. markovskiiAG65
|--Cryptopora Jeffreys 1869 (see below for synonymy)AG65
| |--*C. gnomon (Jeffreys 1876) [=*Atretia gnomon, *Neatretia gnomon]AG65
| |--C. antiqua Bitner & Pisera 1979HB93
| |--C. brazieri (Crane 1886) [=Atretia brazieri]H09
| |--*Mannia’ nysti Davidson 1874AG65
| `--C. parvillima (Sacco 1902)HB93
|--DogdoidaeHB93
| |--Selennjachia abaimovae Baranov 1982HB93
| |--Tatjanica trigona Baranov 1982HB93
| `--Corvinopugnax Havlíček 1961HB93, AG65
| |--*C. corvinus (Barrande 1847) [=Rhynchonella corvina]AG65
| `--C. bimbax Havlíček 1990HB93
|--Tetracameridae [Tetracamerinae]AG65
| |--Tetracamera Weller 1910AG65
| | `--*T. subcuneata (Hall 1858) [=Rhynchonella subcuneata]AG65
| |--Rotaia Rzhonsnitskaya 1959 [=Welleria Rotay 1941 non Ulrich & Bassler 1923]AG65
| | `--*R. subtrigona (Meek & Worthen 1860) [=Rhynchonella subtrigona, *Welleria subtigona]AG65
| `--Yanishewskiella Likharev 1957AG65
| `--*Y. angulata (Linné 1767) [=Anomia angulata, Goniophoria angulata]AG65
|--Rhynchotetradidae [Rhynchotetraidae, RhynchotetridaeAG65
| |--Axiodeaneia Clark 1917AG65
| | `--*A. platypleura Clark 1917AG65
| |--Rhynchotetra Weller 1910AG65
| | |--*R. caputtestudinis (White 1862) [=Rhynchonella caputtestudinis]AG65
| | `--R. missouriensisAG65
| `--Goniophoria Yanishevskiy 1910AG65
| |--*G. monstrosa Yanishevskiy 1910AG65
| `--G. carinataAG65
|--PontisiidaeHB93
| |--Pontisia leonica (Martinez-Chacon 1979)HB93
| |--Lirellaria costellata Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
| |--AphaurosiaHB93
| | |--A. rotundata Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
| | `--A. scutata Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
| `--AnteridocusHB93
| |--A. bicostatus Cooper & Grant 1976HB93
| `--A. swallovianus (Shumard 1860)HB93
|--KatuniidaeHB93
| |--Katunia Kulkov 1963AG65
| | `--*K. subtrigonata Kulkov 1963AG65
| |--Sulcatina Schmidt 1964HB93, AG65
| | `--*S. sulcata (Cooper 1942) [=Trigonirhynchia sulcata]AG65
| `--Terebratuloides Waagen 1883HB93, AG65
| |--*T. davidsoni Waagen 1883AG65
| |--T. elongataG31
| |--T. senexG31
| `--T. triplicataG31
`--Ancistrorhynchidae [Ancistrorhynchinae]AG65
|--Kritorhynchia seclusa Rong & Yang 1981HB93
|--Drepanorhyncha Cooper 1956AG65
| `--*D. ottawaensis (Billings 1862) [=Porambonites ottawaensis]AG65
`--Ancistrorhyncha Ulrich & Cooper 1942AG65
|--*A. costata Ulrich & Cooper 1942AG65
|--A. modesta Popov 1981HB93
|--A. perplexa Cooper 1956HB93
|--A. prisca Popov 1981HB93
`--A. vacua Cooper 1956HB93

Cryptopora Jeffreys 1869 [=Atretia Jeffreys 1870, Neatretia Fischer & Oehlert 1891; incl. Mannia Davidson 1874 nec Opiz 1829 (ICBN) nec Trevis. 1857 (ICBN); Cryptoporidae]AG65

*Straelenia dunensis (Drevermann 1902) [=Rhynchonella dunensis; incl. R. dannenbergi mut. minor Drevermann 1902]AG65

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AG65] Ager, D. V., R. E. Grant, D. J. McLaren & H. Schmidt. 1965. Rhynchonellida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2 pp. H552–H632. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[B86] Brezinski, D. K. 1986. Trilobites from the Keokuk Limestone (Mississippian) of Missouri. Annals of Carnegie Museum 55 (8): 137–143.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[HB93] Harper, D. A. T., C. H. C. Brunton, L. R. M. Cocks, P. Copper, E. N. Doyle, A. L. Jeffrey, E. F. Owen, M. A. Parkes, L. E. Popov & C. D. Prosser. 1993. Brachiopoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 427–462. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M03] Modzalevskaya, T. L. 2003. Silurian and Devonian brachiopods from Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 73–107.

[M65] Moore, R. C. (ed.) 1965. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[NU83] Norris, A. W., & T. T. Uyeno. 1983. Biostratigraphy and paleontology of middle-upper Devonian boundary beds, Gypsum Cliffs area, northeastern Alberta. Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 313: 1–65.

[RG04] Racheboeuf, P. R., R. Gourvennec, M. Deynoux & D. Brice. 2004. The Devonian of the Hodh area (Islamic Republic of Mauritania): paleontology and stratigraphy. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 98–110.

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