Rhynchonelliformea

 Bicia gemma, from Walcott (1886).

Belongs within: Brachiopoda.
Contains: Strophomenata, Rhynchonellata.

The Rhynchonelliformea is the clade containing the articulate brachiopods (Articulata) as well as their stem relatives. The clade is characterised by the possession of an organocalcitic shell with fibrous microstructure (Williams & Holmer 2002). Articulate brachiopods have the valves connected by an arrangement of hinge teeth and dental sockets, though this has been lost in a very few derived subgroups.

<==Rhynchonelliformea
    |--Obolellida [Obolellata]P98
    |    |  i. s.: NochoriellaEL11
    |    `--Obolellidae [Obolellacea, Obolelloidea]R65a
    |         |--Obolella Billings 1861R65a
    |         |    `--*O. chromatica Billings 1861R65a
    |         |--Bicia Walcott 1901R65a
    |         |    `--*B. gemma (Billings 1871) [=Obolella gemma]R65a
    |         |--Magnicanalis Rowell 1962R65a
    |         |    `--*M. mobergi (Walcott 1901) [=Obolella mobergi]R65a
    |         |--Alisina Rowell 1962R65a
    |         |    |--*A. atlantica (Walcott 1890) [=Obolella atlantica]R65a
    |         |    `--A. sibirica (Aksarina 1978HB93
    |         `--Trematobolus Matthew 1893 [=Trematobolos (l. c.); incl. Protosiphon Matthew 1897, Protosyphon (l. c.)]R65a
    |              |--*T. insignis Matthew 1893R65a
    |              |--T. kempanum (Matthew 1897) [=*Protosiphon kempanum]R65a
    |              |--T. pristinusW97
    |              |    |--T. p. pristinusWBM97
    |              |    `--T. p. bicostatusWBM97
    |              `--T. simplex (Vogel 1962)HB93
    `--Articulata [Arthropomata, Clistenterata, Protremata, Pygocaulia, Testicardines]P98
         |  i. s.: Eichwaldioidea [Dictyonellidina, Eichwaldiacea]HB93
         |           |--EichwaldiidaeR65c
         |           |    |--Eichwaldia Billings 1858R65c
         |           |    |    `--*E. subtrigonalis Billings 1858R65c
         |           |    `--Dictyonella Hall 1868 [=Dyctionella (l. c.)]R65c
         |           |         |--*D. coralifera (Hall 1852) [=Atrypa coralifera]R65c
         |           |         `--D. capewelliR65c
         |           `--Isogrammidae [Aulacorhynchidae]R65c
         |                |--Megapleuronia Cooper 1952R65c
         |                |    |--*M. fabianii (Greco 1947) [=Productus fabianii]R65c
         |                |    `--M. grecoiR65c
         |                `--Isogramma Meek & Worthen 1870 (see below for synonymy)R65c
         |                     |--*I. millipunctatum (Meek & Worthen 1870) [=Chonetes millipunctatus]R65c
         |                     |--I. germanica Paeckelmann 1930HB93
         |                     |--I. lobatum Cooper & Grant 1975HB93
         |                     |--*Aulacorhynchus’ pachti Dittmar 1872 [=*Aulacorhyna pachti]R65c
         |                     |--‘Aulacorhynchus’ paotechouensisG31
         |                     |--I. renfrarumR65c
         |                     `--I. texanumR65c
         |         Naukatidae [Naukatida, Naukatoidea]HB93
         |           |--Naukat proprium Popov & Tikhonov 1990HB93
         |           |--Oina rotunda Popov & Tikhonov 1990HB93
         |           `--Bynguanoia perplexa Roberts 1990HB93
         |         Stenosarina crosnieriCG97
         |         Parakinetica stewartiR97
         |         Aulites brazieriR97
         |--StrophomenataP98
         `--RhynchonellataP98
Rhynchonelliformea incertae sedis:
  Nikolaevirhynchus Baranov 1988M03
  Pseudocamarotoechia gljadensis Kul’kov 1974M03
  ChileataWH02
    |  i. s.: Kotujella Andreeva 1962EL11, WW65
    |           `--*K. calva Andreeva 1962WW65
    `--Chileidae [Chileida, Chileidoidea]HB93
         |--Chile mirabilis Popov & Tikhonov 1990HB93
         `--Acareorthis jelli Roberts 1990HB93
  Kutorginata [Kutorginacea, Kutorginida, Kutorginoidea, Palaeotremata, Rustellacea]WH02
    |--Agyrekia [Agyrekiidae]HB93
    |    `--A. alta Koneva 1978HB93
    |--YorkiidaeHB93
    |    |--Hauperia tasmani MacKinnon 1983HB93
    |    `--Yorkia Walcott 1897 [incl. Quebecia Walcott 1905]R65b
    |         |--*Y. wanneri Walcott 1897R65b
    |         `--‘Obolella’ circe Billings 1872 [=*Quebecia circe]R65b
    |--Nisusiidae [Nisusiinae]WW65
    |    |--Eoconcha Cooper 1951WW65
    |    |    `--*E. austini Cooper 1951WW65
    |    |--Matutella Cooper 1951WW65
    |    |    `--*M. clarki Cooper 1951WW65
    |    `--Nisusia Walcott 1905WH02, WW65
    |         |--*N. festinata (Billings 1861) [=Orthisina festinata]WW65
    |         |--N. deissi Bell 1965HB93
    |         `--N. sulcata Rowell & Caruso 1985HB93
    `--Kutorginidae [Rustellidae, Schuchertinidae]R65b
         |--Khasagtina primaria Ushatinskaya 1987HB93
         |--Schuchertina Walcott 1905R65b
         |    `--*S. cambria Walcott 1905R65b
         `--Kutorgina Billings 1861 [=Koturgina; incl. Rustella Walcott 1905]R65b
              |--*K. cingulata (Billings 1861) [=Obolella cingulata]R65b
              |--K. amzassica Aksarina 1978HB93
              |--K. anglica Cobbold & Pocock 1934HB93
              |--*Rustella’ edsoni Walcott 1905R65b
              |--K. peculiarisHB93
              `--K. reticulataR65b

Isogramma Meek & Worthen 1870 [incl. Aulacorhyna Strand 1928, Aulacorhynchus Dittmar 1872 non Gould 1834]R65c

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CG97] Cohen, B. L., & A. B. Gawthrop. 1997. The brachiopod genome. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 189–211. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[HB93] Harper, D. A. T., C. H. C. Brunton, L. R. M. Cocks, P. Copper, E. N. Doyle, A. L. Jeffrey, E. F. Owen, M. A. Parkes, L. E. Popov & C. D. Prosser. 1993. Brachiopoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 427–462. Chapman & Hall: London.

[M03] Modzalevskaya, T. L. 2003. Silurian and Devonian brachiopods from Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 73–107.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[R97] Richardson, J. R. 1997. Ecology of articulated brachiopods. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 441–462. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[R65a] Rowell, A. J. 1965a. Inarticulata. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H260–H296. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[R65b] Rowell, A. J. 1965b. Class uncertain. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H296–H297. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[R65c] Rowell, A. J. 1965c. Order uncertain—Dictyonellidina. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H359–H361. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[W97] Williams, A. 1997. Shell structure. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 267–320. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[WBM97] Williams, A., C. H. C. Brunton & D. I. MacKinnon. 1997. Morphology. In: Kaesler, R. L. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda, Revised vol. 1. Introduction pp. 321–422. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[WH02] Williams, A., & L. E. Holmer. 2002. Shell structure and inferred growth, functions and affinities of the sclerites of the problematic Micrina. Palaeontology 45 (5): 845–873.

[WW65] Williams, A., & A. D. Wright. 1965. Orthida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H299–H359. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *