Rhysodinae

Kaveinga abbreviata, copyright David R. Maddison.

Belongs within: Carabidae.

The Rhysodinae are a group of ground beetles found as both adults and larvae in old, rotted logs (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Black and shiny, subcylindrical to slightly flattened, head and pronotum with deep grooves that are often filled with dried organic material; antennae stout, moniliform, 11-segmented; mouthparts more or less concealed beneath expanded mentum; head strongly constricted posteriorly to form narrow neck; fore coxae globular, trochantins concealed, fore coxal cavities externally closed (internally open); mid coxal cavities moderately separated, laterally open; metasternum without transverse suture; legs relatively short, with weakly developed antenna cleaner on fore tibia, tarsal formula 5-5-5; abdomen with six ventrites, three connate. Larvae elongate, somewhat flattened and lightly sclerotised with short legs, no urogomphi, and transverse rows of asperities or interrupted ridges on T1 to 6 or 7; head prognathous, protracted; stemmata absent; antenna four-segmented; frontoclypeal suture absent; labrum fused; mandibular mola absent; maxillae and labium reduced, usually clothed with fringed membranes, maxilla with single mala, maxillary palp three-segmented, labial palp one-segmented; hypostomal rods present; legs six-segmented, with one tarsal claws; urogomphi absent; spiracles annular.

Rhysodinae [Rhysodidae, Rhyssodidae]
| i. s.: EpiglymmiusA01
| RhysodiastesA01
| |--R. costatus [=Clinidium costatum]A01
| |--R. marginecollis [=Clinidium marginecolle]A01
| `--R. quadristriatus [=Rhysodes quadristriatus]A01
|--Leoglymmius Bell & Bell 1978 [Leoglymmiini]LM87
| `--*L. lignarius (Olliff 1885) (see below for synonymy)LM87
|--OmmoglymiiniLM87
| |--Ommoglymius Ganglbauer 1892LM87
| | |--*O. germari (Ganglebauer 1892) [=Rhysodes germari]LM87
| | `--O. ichthyocephalus (Lea 1904) [=Rhysodes ichthyocephalus]LM87
| `--Yamatosa Bell & Bell 1979 [=Yamatoa Bell 1977 non Kiriakoff 1967]LM87
| |--*Y. niponensis (Lewis 1888) [=*Yamatoa niponensis]LM87
| `--Y. planata (Lea 1904) [=Rhysodes planatus]LM87
|--ClinidiiniLM87
| |--Rhyzodiastes Fairmaire 1895LM87
| | |--*R. parumcostatus (Fairmaire 1868) [=Rhysodes parumcostatus]LM87
| | |--R. burnsi (Oke 1932) [=Rhysodes burnsi]LM87
| | `--R. mirabilis (Lea 1904) [=Rhysodes mirabilis]LM87
| `--Clinidium Kirby 1835AI01
| |--C. arcuatumA01
| |--C. baldufiVB21
| |--C. guildingi Kirby 1835 [incl. C. planum]FS90
| |--C. proprium [=Rhysodes proprius, R. probrius (l. c.)]A01
| |--C. rojasiG89
| `--C. sculptileAI01
`--RhysodiniLM87
|--Kaveinga Bell & Bell 1978LM87
| |--*K. (Kaveinga) abbreviata (Lea 1904) [=Rhysodes abbreviatus]LM87
| `--K. (Angekiva Bell & Bell 1978)LM87
| `--K. (*A.) frontalis (Grouvelle 1903) [=Rhysodes frontalis]LM87
`--Rhysodes Dalman 1823AI01
|--R. americanusA01
|--R. anguliceps Arrow 1901A01
|--R. armatus Arrow 1901A01
|--R. aterrimusA01
|--R. batchianus Arrow 1901A01
|--R. boysi Arrow 1901A01
|--R. bucculatus Arrow 1901A01
|--R. canaliculatusA01
|--R. comesA01
|--R. crassiusculusA01
|--R. eminensA01
|--R. exaratusA01
|--R. malabaricus Arrow 1901A01
|--R. malaicus Arrow 1901A01
|--R. nicobarensisA01
|--R. niponensisA01
|--R. pensusA01
|--R. quadraticollis Arrow 1901A01
|--R. strabusA01
|--R. sulcatusLM87
|--R. taprobanaeA01
`--R. tubericepsA01

*Leoglymmius lignarius (Olliff 1885) [=Rhysodes lignarius; incl. R. blackburni Grouvelle 1903, R. trichosternus Lea 1904]LM87

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AI01] Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. A. Ivie. 2001. Rhysodidae Laporte, 1840. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 30–31. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[A01] Arrow, G. J. 1901. Remarks upon the genus Rhysodes, with descriptions of some new Oriental species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 83–89.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G89] Grouvelle, A. 1889. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887–Avril 1888). Coléoptéres, 2e mémoire. Cucujidae, Rhysodidae, Dryopidae, Cyathoceridae, Heteroceridae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 157–166, pl. 6.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[VB21] Vasilikopoulos, A., M. Balke, S. Kukowka, J. M. Pflug, S. Martin, K. Meusemann, L. Hendrich, C. Mayer, D. R. Maddison, O. Niehuis, R. G. Beutel & B. Misof. 2021. Phylogenomic analyses clarify the pattern of evolution of Adephaga (Coleoptera) and highlight phylogenetic artefacts due to model misspecification and excessive data trimming. Systematic Entomology 46: 991–1018.

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