Ricinulei

Male Cryptocellus abaporu, from Bonaldo & Pinto-da-Rocha (2003). Scale bar = 1 mm.

Belongs within: Euchelicerata.

The Ricinulei are a group of arachnids found primarily in tropical rainforests. Members of this group are characterised by a pre-carapaceal structure (the cucullus), modified pedipalps and a characteristic mode of sperm transfer facilitated by an elaborate copulatory apparatus on the third leg of the male (Harvey 2002).

<==Ricinulei
    |--PalaeoricinuleiH02
    |    |--PoliocheridaeH02
    |    |    |--Terpsicroton Selden 1992V-MF13
    |    |    |    `--T. alticeps (Pocock 1911)S93
    |    |    `--Poliochera Scudder 1884V-MF13
    |    |         |--P. glabra Petrunkevitch 1913S93
    |    |         `--P. punctulata Scudder 1886F04
    |    `--CurculioididaeH02
    |         |--Amarixys Selden 1992V-MF13
    |         |    |--A. gracilis (Petrunkevitch 1945)S93
    |         |    `--A. sulcata (Melander 1903)S93
    |         `--Curculioides Buckland 1837V-MF13
    |              |--C. adompha Brauckmann 1987S93
    |              |--C. ansticii Buckland 1837H02
    |              `--C. scaber (Scudder 1890)S93
    `--Ricinoididae [Cryptostemmatidae, Cryptostemmatoidae, Neoricinulei]B-TP08
         |--CryptostemmaH02
         |    |--C. crassipalpe Hansen & Sørensen 1904HS04
         |    `--C. westermannii Guérin-Méneville 1838H02
         |--Ricinoides Ewing 1929B-TP08
         |    |--R. afzeliiH95
         |    |--R. atewaSF15
         |    `--R. hanseniA99
         |--Pseudocellus Platnick 1980B-TP08
         |    |--*P. dorotheae (Gertsch & Mulaik 1939)V-MF13
         |    |--P. bolivari (Gertsch 1971)V-MF13
         |    |--P. boneti (Bolivar & Pieltain 1942)V-MF13
         |    |--P. chankin Valdez-Mondragón & Francke 2011V-MF13
         |    |--P. cruzlopezi Valdez-Mondragón & Francke 2013V-MF13
         |    |--P. gertschi (Márquez & Conconi 1974)V-MF13
         |    |--P. jarocho Valdez-Mondragón & Francke 2011V-MF13
         |    |--P. mitchelli (Gertsch 1971)V-MF13
         |    |--P. monjarazi Valdez-Mondragón & Francke 2013V-MF13
         |    |--P. osorioi (Bolivar & Pieltain 1946)V-MF13
         |    |--P. oztotl Valdez-Mondragón & Francke 2011V-MF13
         |    |--P. paradoxusH95
         |    |--P. pearsei (Chamberlin & Ivie 1938)GE02
         |    |--P. pelaezi (Coronado-Gutierrez 1970)V-MF13
         |    |--P. platnicki Valdez-Mondragón & Francke 2011V-MF13
         |    |--P. reddelli (Gertsch 1971)V-MF13
         |    |--P. sbordonii (Brignoli 1974)V-MF13
         |    `--P. spinotibialis (Goodnight & Goodnight 1952)V-MF13
         `--Cryptocellus Westwood 1874B-TP08
              |--*C. foedus Westwood 1874G-TP08
              |--C. abaporu Bonaldo & Pinto-da-Rocha 2003BP-R03
              |--C. bonetiGE02
              |--C. centralis Fage 1921B-TP08
              |--C. glenoides Cooke & Shadab 1973B-TP08
              |--C. isthmusA99
              |--C. lampeliH95
              |--C. magnus Ewing 1929 [incl. C. manni Ewing 1929]B-TP08
              |--C. narino Platnick & Paz 1979B-TP08
              |--C. peckorum Platnick & Shadab 1977B-TP08
              |--C. platnicki Botero-Trujillo & Pérez 2008B-TP08
              `--C. simonisBP-R03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BP-R03] Bonaldo, A. B., & R. Pinto-da-Rocha. 2003. On a new species of Cryptocellus from the Brazilian Amazon (Arachnida, Ricinulei). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 7: 103–108.

[B-TP08] Botero-Trujillo, R., & G. A. Pérez. 2008. A new species of Cryptocellus (Arachnida, Ricinulei) from northwestern Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 468–471.

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

[HS04] Hansen, H. J., & W. Sørensen. 1904. On Two Orders of Arachnida: Opiliones, especially the suborder Cyphophthalmi, and Ricinulei, namely the family Cryptostemmatoidae. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[H02] Harvey, M. S. 2002. The neglected cousins: what do we know about the smaller arachnid orders? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 357–372.

[H95] Humphreys, W. F. 1995. Chorion surface features of chelicerate eggs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 171–181.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SF15] Sharma, P. P., R. Fernández, L. A. Esposito, E. González-Santillán & L. Monod. 2015. Phylogenomic resolution of scorpions reveals multilevel discordance with morphological phylogenetic signal. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 282: 20142953.

[V-MF13] Valdez-Mondragón, A., & O. F. Francke. 2013. Two new species of ricinuleids of the genus Pseudocellus (Arachnida: Ricinulei: Ricinoididae) from southern Mexico. Zootaxa 3635 (5): 545–556.

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