Rickettsiales

Cells of Rickettsia ricketsii (red stains) infecting tick haemolymph cells, copyright Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Belongs within: Proteobacteria.

The Ricksettiales are a group of bacteria that are mostly obligately intracellular symbionts of eukaryotes. Members of the Anaplasmataceae lack cell walls and grow only in red blood cells (Prescott et al. 1996). Many Rickettsiales are pathogenic though others are more benign, and it is believed that the ancestors of eukaryotic mitochondria probably belonged to or were close relatives of the Rickettsiales.

<==Rickettsiales [Rickettsiae]
    |--Holosporaceae [Holosporales]GH01
    |    |--Caedibacter caryophilaGH01, ALS95
    |    |--LyticumGH01
    |    |--Polynucleobacter necessariusGH01, ALS95
    |    |--PseudocaedibacterGH01
    |    |--TectibacterGH01
    |    `--HolosporaGH01
    |         |--H. elegansALS95
    |         `--H. obtusaALS95
    |--EhrlichiaceaeGH01
    |    |--AnaplasmataceaePHK96
    |    |    |--AegyptianellaPHK96
    |    |    `--AnaplasmaGH01
    |    |         |--A. marginalePHK96
    |    |         `--A. phagocytophliumWK13
    |    `--EhrlichieaePHK96
    |         |--Cowdria ruminantiumPHK96, YN91
    |         `--EhrlichiaGH01
    |              |--E. chaffeensisPHK96
    |              |--E. equiMP95
    |              |--E. phagocytophilaKNO99
    |              |--E. risticiiPHK96
    |              `--E. sennetsuR99
    `--RickettsiaceaeGH01
         |--WolbachieaePHK96
         |    |--Wolbachia pipientisGH01, PHK96
         |    `--Rickettsiella phytoseiuliPHK96, SR91
         `--Rickettsia [Rickettsieae]PHK96
              |--R. akariR01
              |--R. australisR01
              |--R. canadaP91
              |--R. conoriiYN91
              |--R. helveticaGK01
              |--R. honeiR01
              |--R. mooseriPHK96
              |--R. prowazekiiLO02
              |--R. quintanaA71
              |--R. rickettsiiPHK96
              |--R. sibericaK91
              |--R. slovakaB99
              |--R. tsutsugamushiG56 [=Orientia tsutsugamushiR01]
              `--R. typhiPHK96
Nomen invalidum: Rickettsia felis Bouyer et al. 2001JC08

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[ALS95] Amann, R. I., W. Ludwig & K.-H. Schleifer. 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiological Reviews 59 (1): 143–169.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B99] Balashov, Y. S. 1999. The regulation of interaction between tick, host and pathogens by the activity of salivary glands. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 451–455. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[G56] Gould, D. J. 1956. The larval trombiculid mites of California (Acarina: Trombiculidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 11 (1): 1–116.

[GK01] Gray, J. S., & O. Kahl. 2001. Ticks as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in Europe. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 547–551. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[KNO99] Keirans, J. E., G. R. Needham & J. H. Oliver Jr. 1999. The Ixodes ricinus complex worldwide: diagnosis of the species in the complex, hosts and distribution. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 341–347. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[K91] Kryuchechnikov, V. N. 1991. Protective responses of Ixodoidea hemocytes. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 331–334. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LO02] Lang, B. F., C. O’Kelly, T. Nerad, M. W. Gray & G. Burger. 2002. The closest unicellular relatives of animals. Current Biology 12: 1773–1778.

[MP95] Maher, M., R. Palmer, F. Gannon & T. Smith. 1995. Relationship of a novel bacterial fish pathogen to Streptobacillus moniliformis and the fusobacteria group, based on 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 18: 79–84.

[P91] Podboronov, V. M. 1991. Antibacterial protective mechanisms of ixodoid ticks. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 375–380. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[R99] Roger, A. J. 1999. Reconstructing early events in eukaryotic evolution. American Naturalist 154 (Suppl. 4): S146–S163.

[R01] Russell, R. C. 2001. The medical significance of Acari in Australia. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 535–546. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[SR91] Šut’áková, G., & J. Řeháček. 1991. Symbiotic microorganisms (endocytobionts) in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 41–44. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WK13] Williams, K. P., & D. P. Kelly. 2013. Proposal for a new class within the phylum Proteobacteria, Acidithiobacillia classis nov., with the type order Acidithiobacillales, and emended description of the class Gammaproteobacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63 (8): 2901–2906.

[YN91] Yunker, C. E., & R. A. I. Norval. 1991. Field studies on the aggregation-attachment pheromones of Amblyomma spp., vectors of human and animal rickettsioses, in Zimbabwe. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 79–82. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

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