Ringicula auriculata, copyright H. Zell.

Belongs within: Heterobranchia.
Contains: Doridina, Aeolidacea, Dendronotina, Arminina.

The Ringipleura are a clade of marine molluscs supported by molecular data including the nudibranch sea slugs and related taxa. The basal Ringiculidae retain an external shell whereas members of the clade Nudipleura are shell-less. Ringiculid shells are solid and moderately high-spired with heavy spiral sculpture, a thick outer lip and strong folds on the columella. Within the Nudipleura, the Pleurobranchoidea have the external gill located on the right side of the body whereas that of the Nudibranchia is located dorsally. The Cladobranchia are a clade of Nudibranchia characterised by a more or less branched digestive gland.

    |--Ringiculidae [Ringiculacea, Ringiculida, Ringiculimorpha, Ringiculoidea]BR17
    |    |--Cinulia Gray 1840TTE93, BS00
    |    |    |--C. globulosaTTE93
    |    |    `--C. pusilla Whiteaves 1884BS00
    |    |--Ringinella albensis (Orbigny 1842)TTE93
    |    |--Avellana d’Orbigny 1843 [Avellaninae]BR05
    |    |    |--*A. (Avellana) avellana (Brongniart 1822) [=Cassis avellana]BR17
    |    |    |--A. (Eriptychia Meek 1876)KB01
    |    |    |    |--A. (*E.) decurata (Sowerby 1835) [=Auricula decurata]KB01
    |    |    |    |--A. (E.) chilensis Orbigny 1846 [=Cinulia chilensis]BS00
    |    |    |    |--‘Eriptycha’ punamutica Wilckens 1922 [=Biplica punamutica]S98
    |    |    |    `--‘Eriptycha’ ringens (Orbigny 1842)TTE93
    |    |    `--A. (Oligoptycha Meek 1876)BS00
    |    |         |--A. (O.) americanaBS00
    |    |         `--A. (O.) corrugata Sohl 1963BS00
    |    `--Ringicula Deshayes 1838BR05 [incl. Ringiculopsis Chavan 1947KB01; Ringiculinae]
    |         |--*R. auriculata (Ménard de la Groye 1811) [=Marginella auriculata]BR17
    |         |--R. abundanta Kiel & Bandel 2001KB01
    |         |--R. abyssicola Brazier 1877H09
    |         |--R. arctata Gould 1860H09
    |         |--R. assularum Watson 1883H09
    |         |--R. caron Hinds 1844H09
    |         |--R. clarki Gardner 1916KBP02
    |         |--R. coronai Kiel, Bandel & Perrilliat 2002KBP02
    |         |--R. delecta Murdoch & Suter 1906P61
    |         |--R. lactea [incl. Pyramidella sulcata Johnston 1880 non Adams 1855]F27
    |         |--R. larteti Chavan 1947 [=R. (*Ringiculopsis) larteti]KB01
    |         |--R. multidenta Kiel & Bandel 2001KB01
    |         |--R. pulchella Shumard 1861KB01
    |         |--R. pusilla Watson 1883H09
    |         |--R. ringens (Lamarck 1804) [=Auricula ringens]KB01
    |         |--R. torquata Marwick 1926F27
    |         |--R. uniplicataF27
    |         `--R. yochelsoni Sohl 1964KB01
         |--Nudibranchia (see below for synonymy)BR05
         |    |  i. s.: TrapaniaHS01
         |    |           |--T. fuscaPP64
         |    |           `--T. rudmaniHS01
         |    |         Angasiella edwardsiBRW98
         |    |         Peplidia Lowe 1842L42
         |    |           `--*P. maderae Lowe 1842L42
         |    |--DoridinaBR05
         |    `--Cladobranchia (see below for synonymy)BR17
         |         |  i. s.: Goniaeolis Sars 1861 [Goniaeolididae]BR05
         |         |           `--*G. typica Sars 1861BR17
         |         |         Hero Lovén 1855BR05, BR17 [Heroacea, Heroidae, Heroinae]
         |         |           `--*H. formosa (Lovén 1844) [=Cloelia formosa]BR17
         |         |         Bonisa nakaza Gosliner 1981KM17
         |         |         Doridoxa Bergh 1899BR05 [Doridoxida, Doridoxidae, DoridoxoideaBR17, Pseudoeuctenidiacea]
         |         |           `--*D. ingolfiana Bergh 1899BR17
         |         |         Laniogerus blainvilliiG20
         |         |--AeolidaceaBR05
         |         |--DendronotinaH01
         |         `--ArmininaH01
         `--Pleurobranchoidea [Pleurobranchida, Pleurobranchomorpha, Subaplysiacea]BR17
              |--Quijote Ortea, Moro & Bacallado 2016 [Quijotidae]BR17
              |    `--*Q. cervantesi Ortea, Moro & Bacallado 2016BR17
              |--Pleurobranchaea Leue 1813 [Pleurobranchaeidae, Pleurobranchaeinae]BR17
              |    |--*P. meckeli (Blainville 1825) [=Pleurobranchidium meckeli]BR17
              |    |--P. californica (MacFarland 1966)RD77
              |    |--P. maculata (Quoy & Gaimard 1832)P61
              |    |--P. novaezelandiae Cheeseman 1878P61
              |    |    |--P. n. novaezelandiaeP61
              |    |    `--P. n. granulosa Berg 1900P61
              |    `--P. tardaB26
              `--Pleurobranchidae [Pleurobranchinae]BR05
                   |--Berthellina citrina (Rüppell & Leuckart 1828)BW09
                   |--Bathyberthella Willan 1983 [Bathyberthellini]BR05
                   |    `--*B. zelandiae Willan 1983BR17
                   |--Berthella Blainville 1824 [Berthellinae, Berthellini]BR05
                   |    `--*B. plumula (Montagu 1803) [=Bulla plumula]BR17
                   |--Bouvieria Vayssiere 1896P61
                   |    |--*B. aurantiaca (Risso 1818) [=Pleurobranchus aurantiacus]P61
                   |    `--B. ornata (Cheeseman 1878)P61
                   `--Pleurobranchus Cuvier 1804 [Pleurobrancheae, Pleurobranchini]BR05
                        |--*P. peronii Cuvier 1804BR17
                        |--P. areolatus (Mörch 1863)PP78
                        |--P. californicus Dall 1900O27
                        |--P. delicatus Pease 1861K65
                        |--P. forskalii (Ruppell & Leuckart 1828)BW09
                        |--P. hilliBRW98
                        |--P. marginatus Pease 1860K65
                        |--P. pellucidus Pease 1860K65
                        |--P. reticulatus Pease 1860K65
                        |--P. rufus Pease 1860K65
                        `--P. varians Pease 1860K65

Cladobranchia [Abranchia, Actenidiacea, Archidexia, Cerabranchia, Ceratobranchia, Ceratonota, Cladohepatica, Dexiarchia, Dexioprocta, Exotenobranchia, Heterohepatica, Inferobranchia, Inferobranchiata, Leptognatha, Papillifera, Polybranchia]BR05

Nudibranchia [Bifaribranchiata, Gnathodoridacea, Gnathodoridoidea, Gymnobranchia, Gymnobranchiata, Hypobranchia, Hypobranchiata, Nudibranchi, Superobranchiata, Tergibranchiata, Tergobranchiata]BR05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS00] Bandel, K., & W. Stinnesbeck. 2000. Gastropods of the Quiriquina Formation (Maastrichtian) in central Chile: paleobiogeographic relationships and the description of a few new taxa. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil I 7–8: 757–788.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H01] Huys, R. 2001. Splanchnotrophid systematics: a case of polyphyly and taxonomic myopia. Journal of Crustacean Biology 21 (1): 106–156.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. Marine molluscs in the Cuming collection, British Museum (Natural History) described by William Harper Pease. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Supplement 1: 1–96, 14 pls.

[KB01] Kiel, S., & K. Bandel. 2001. About Heterostropha (Gastropoda) of the Campanian of Torallola, Spain. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 46 (3–4): 319–334.

[KBP02] Kiel, S., K. Bandel & M. del C. Perrilliat. 2002. New gastropods from the Maastrichtian of the Mexcala Formation in Guerrero, southern Mexico, part II: Archaeogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Heterostropha. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 226 (3): 319–342.

[KM17] Korshunova, T., A. Martynov, T. Bakken, J. Evertsen, K. Fletcher, I. W. Mudianta, H. Saito, K. Lundin, M. Schrödl & B. Picton. 2017. Polyphyly of the traditional family Flabellinidae affects a major group of Nudibranchia: aeolidacean taxonomic reassessment with descriptions of several new families, genera, and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda). ZooKeys 717: 1–139.

[L42] Lowe, R. T. 1842. Description of a new dorsibranchiate gasteropod, discovered at Madeira. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 51–53.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RD77] Ram, J. L., & W. J. Davis. 1977. Mechanisms underlying “singleness of action” in the feeding behavior of Pleurobranchaea californica (MacFarland, 1966). Veliger 20 (1): 55–56.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

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