Austronoba kermadecensis, from Powell (1927).

Belongs within: Littorinina.
Contains: Hauffenia (Hauffenia), Iglica (Iglica), Saxurinator, Bythiospeum, Plagigeyeria, Paladilhiopsis, Schwartziella, Barleeia, Amphithalamus, Rissoina, Nobolira, Linemera, Merelina, Notosetia, Rissoa, Cingula, Alvania, Estea, Subonoba.

The Rissooidea are a group of small to minute, mostly marine gastropods primarily supported by molecular data. The majority of species live in shallow marine habitats with smaller numbers in brackish or deeper waters. Most species have historically been classified within the Rissoidae but are now divided between several families, the Rissoidae sensu stricto usually being characterised by a simple penis in the male and lack of a differentiated sperm duct in the female. The Rissoinidae have a more complex penis that is often expanded distally, and the sperm duct expanded and forming a separate duct for most of the length of the upper oviduct gland. The Lironobidae have a usually solid shell with strong spiral keels and the animal is blind. The Barleeiidae are characterised by an inner chitinous layer to the shell.

Careful with that spelling: the Barleeiidae
Published 19 October 2009
The two millimetre long Barleeia angustata from Japan (assuming that this is not one of the “gastropods previously confused with Barleeia angustata” referred to in this abstract). Photo from here.

Seriously, watch it. There are some taxon names out there that seem to have been deliberately designed to provoke misspellings, and the double-e, double-i combination in Barleeiidae definitely puts it up there*. If Google Scholar search results are any indication, then publications using misspellings of Barleeiidae outnumber those using the correct spelling by a factor of ten. Barleeiidae and the type genus Barleeia derive their name from a George Barlee, a retired solicitor who regularly accompanied malacologist J. G. Jeffreys on collecting trips in the early 1800s (Fretter & Graham 1978). The common name of “barley snails” is sometimes given to barleeiids; it looks more likely to be a mangling of the generic name rather than indicating any specific connection between barleeiids and barley.

*As well as providing a good example of the principle that taxonomic names are primarily designed to be written, not spoken. You can try saying that one aloud, but don’t be surprised if passers-by think you’ve sprung a leak.

Barleeiidae are a family of marine gastropods found around the world. They belong to the Rissooidea (another tricky name to spell correctly), the same superfamily that includes the Caecidae. Unlike caecids, barleeiids have a gastropod-ordinary spired shell, usually about one and a half times as tall as wide. One noticeable feature that barleeiids do have in common with caecids, on the other hand, is their size—like caecids, barleeiids are minute, only about one or two millimetres tall. Species such as the north-west Atlantic Barleeia unifasciata live on macroalgae (i.e. seaweed), though their diet seems to be diatoms sitting on the weed more than the weed itself (Fernández et al. 1988). Barleeiid shells are smooth and mostly unornamented except for the protoconch (the very tip of the shell) with numerous fine spiral ridges (Fretter & Graham 1978). The shell has an inner chitinous layer and the osphradium (the organ a marine gastropod smells with) is relatively large (Kabat & Hershler 1993). Rissooids as a rule have separate males and females with the internally-fertilised females laying their eggs in lens-shaped capsules; in barleeiids and many other marine rissooids, the glands that secrete the capsule have a fairly basic structure, but in other rissooid families, particularly those including terrestrial and freshwater species, the oviduct glands become more complex.

Barleeia unifasciata. Photo from here.

The number of described species of barleeiids seems to be very small, possibly even less than twenty (see the Atlas of Living Australia listings, for instance), all but a few of which are included in Barleeia. The ALA listing (and other sources such as Wikipedia) includes the genus Amphithalamus in Barleeiidae, but Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) placed that genus in the related but separate family Anabathridae. In view of their wide distribution, it seems certain that the small number of described barleiid species indicates a low level of study, and anyone willing to take on the study of such small animals would be bound to be rewarded with a wealth of new taxa.

Systematics of Rissooidea
    |--Emblanda Ponder 1985BR17 [EmblandidaeBR05]
    |    `--*E. emblematica (Hedley 1906) [=Rissoa emblematica]BR17
    |    |--Stosicia Brusina 1871 [Stosiciinae]BR17
    |    |    |--*S. buccinalis (Grateloup 1828) [=Rissoa buccinalis]BR17
    |    |    `--S. planaxoides (Desmoulins in Grateloup 1838) [=Rissoa planaxoides]C75
    |    `--ZebininaeBR17
    |         |--SchwartziellaBR05
    |         `--Zebina Adams & Adams 1854BR05
    |              `--*Z. semiglabrata (Adams 1854) [=Rissoina semiglabrata]BR17
    |--Barleeiidae [Barleeiadae, Barleeiinae, Barleeioidea]S11
    |    |--Tropidorissoia secunda Rolán & Templado 1994BC01
    |    |--BarleeiaBR05
    |    |--AmphithalamusS11
    |    |--Ansola Slavoshevskaya 1975 [Ansolidae]BR05
    |    |    `--*A. angustata (Pilsbry 1901) [=Assiminea angustata]BR17
    |    `--FictonobaTTE93
    |         |--F. carnosaHS01
    |         `--F. similis (Laws 1950)TTE93
    |--Rissoinidae [Rissoininae, Rissoinoidea]BR17
    |    |--RissoinaBR05
    |    |--Phosinella Mörch 1876 [Phosinellinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*P. pulchra (Adams 1850) [=Rissoa pulchra]BR17
    |    |--Rissolina Gould 1861 [Rissolinidae]BR05
    |    |    `--*R. plicatula (Gould 1861) [=Rissoina plicatula]BR17
    |    |--Folinia Crosse 1868 [Foliniinae]BR05
    |    |    `--*F. insignis (de Folin 1867) [=Rissoa insignis]BR17
    |    `--Nilsia Finlay 1926F26
    |         |--*N. conica (Odhner 1924) [=Fossarus conicus]P61
    |         `--N. cuvieriana (Suter 1908)P61 [=Rissoina cuvierianaF26]
    |    |--NoboliraP27
    |    |--LinemeraP27
    |    |--Lironoba Iredale 1915P27, BR05 [Lironobinae]
    |    |    |--*L. suteri (Hedley 1904) [=Rissoa suteri]P61
    |    |    |--L. anomala Powell 1940P61
    |    |    |--L. charassaP27
    |    |    |--L. matai Dell 1952P61
    |    |    `--L. wilsonensisP27
    |    |--+--Brookesena Finlay 1927P61 [=VindexP27]
    |    |  |    |--*B. neozelanica (Suter 1908)P61 [=Mathilda neozelanicaP61, *Vindex neozelanicaP27]
    |    |  |    `--B. succincta (Suter 1908)P61 [=Aclis succinctaF26, Vindex succinctaP27]
    |    |  `--Larochella Powell 1927P27
    |    |       |--*L. toreuma Powell 1927P27
    |    |       `--L. alta Powell 1927P27
    |    `--+--MerelinaP27
    |       |--Awanuia Powell 1927P27
    |       |    `--*A. dilatata Powell 1927P27
    |       `--Promerelina Powell 1926P27, P61
    |            |--*P. crosseaformis Powell 1926P61
    |            |--P. coronata Powell 1926P61
    |            |--P. lacunosa Powell 1940P61
    |            `--P. tricarinata Powell 1937P61
    `--Rissoidae [Rissoaina, Rissoinae]PC08
         |  i. s.: NotosetiaP61
         |         Frigidoalvania brychia (Verrill 1884)VR89
         |         Lucidestea Laseron 1956BM88
         |         CrisillaBC01
         |           |--C. alvarezi Templado & Rolán 1993BC01
         |           |--C. graxai Templado & Rolán 1993BC01
         |           |--C. luquei Templado & Rolán 1993BC01
         |           |--C. morenoi Templado & Rolán 1993BC01
         |           |--C. orteai Templado & Rolán 1993BC01
         |           `--C. vidali Templado & Rolán 1993BC01
         |         ManzoniaBC01
         |           |--M. boavistensis Rolán 1987BC01
         |           |--M. bravensis Rolán 1987BC01
         |           |--M. caboverdensis Rolán 1987BC01
         |           |--M. gofasi Rolán & Fernandes 1990BC01
         |           |--M. insulsa Rolán 1987BC01
         |           |--M. salensis Rolán 1987BC01
         |           |--M. segadei Rolán 1987BC01
         |           `--M. xicoi Rolán 1987BC01
         |         Obtusella lata Rolán & Rubio 1999BC01
         |         Peringiella tuber Rolán 1991BC01
         |         Bralitzia Gründel 1998PC08, GK02
         |           `--B. foersteri Gründel 1998G01
         |         Ovirissoa Hedley 1916P61
         |           |--*O. adarensis [=Rissoa adarensis]P61
         |           `--O. nivea Powell 1957 [incl. O. fraudulenta Tomlin 1948 non Smith 1907]P61
         |         Scalaronoba Powell 1927P61
         |           |--*S. costata Powell 1927P61
         |           `--S. secunda Powell 1940P61
         |         Haurakiopsis Powell 1937P61
         |           `--*H. pellucida Powell 1937P61
         |         Powellia Finlay 1927 non Mitt. 1868 (ICBN)F26 [=Badenia Finlay 1930P61]
         |           |--*P. lactea Finlay 1927F26 [=*Badenia lacteaP61]
         |           |--P. comes Finlay 1927F26
         |           |--‘Badenia’ duplicata Powell 1937P61
         |           |    |--B. d. duplicataP61
         |           |    `--B. d. exuta Powell 1937P61
         |           |--P. paupereques Finlay 1927F26 [=Badenia pauperequesP61]
         |           `--P. semireticulata (Murdoch & Suter 1906)F26 [=Aclis semireticulataF26, Badenia semireticulataP61]
         |         Coenaculum Iredale 1924P61
         |           |--*C. minutulum [=Scalaria minutula]P61
         |           |--C. secundum Powell 1937P61
         |           `--C. tertium Dell 1952P61
         |         Manawatawhia Powell 1937P61
         |           `--*M. analoga Powell 1937P61
         |         Eusetia Cotton 1944P61
         |           |--*E. expansa (Powell 1930) [=Rissopsis expansa]P61
         |           `--E. subcarinata (Murdoch & Suter 1906) [=Diala subcarinata]P61
         |         Rissopsetia Dell 1956P61
         |           `--*R. maoria Dell 1956P61
         |         Skenella Pfeiffer 1886P61
         |           |--*S. georgianaP61
         |           |--S. pfeifferi Suter 1909P61
         |           `--S. spadixHS01
         |         Coelacanthia Andrusov 1890 [Coelacanthiinae]BR17
         |           `--*C. quadrispinosa Andrusov 1890BR17
         |         RissoaBR05
         |         Turbona Leach in Gray 1847 [Turbonidae]BR05
         |           `--*T. ‘reticulata’ (Adams 1797) [=Turbo reticulatus non Solander 1766]BR17
         |         Mohrensternia Stoliczka 1868 [Mohrensterniidae, Mohrensterniinae]BR05
         |           `--*M. angulata (Eichwald 1830) [=Rissoa angulata]BR17
         |         CingulaBR05
         |         AlvaniaBR05
         |         Haurakia Iredale 1915 [Haurakiidae]BR05
         |           |--*H. hamiltoni (Suter 1898) [=Rissoa hamiltoni]P61
         |           |--H. aupouria Powell 1937P61
         |           |--H. crassicosta Powell 1955P61
         |           |--H. finlayi Powell 1937P61
         |           |--H. huttoni (Suter 1898)P61
         |           |--H. minuscula Powell 1955P61
         |           |--H. oamaruticaF26
         |           |--H. otagoensis Dell 1956P61
         |           `--H. subsuturalis Dell 1956P61
         |         Archaschenia Zhgenti 1981 [Archascheniinae, Archascheniini]BR05
         |           `--*A. merklini Zhgenti 1981BR17
         |         ‘Pseudosetia’ Monterosato 1884 non Boisduval 1874 [Pseudosetiinae]BR05
         |           `--*P. turgida (Jeffreys 1870) [=Rissoa turgida]BR17
         |         Pusillina Monterosato 1884 [Pusillininae]BR05
         |           |--‘Rissoa’ philippi Aradas & Maggiore 1844 (see below for synonymy)BR17
         |           |--P. harpa (Verrill 1880)VR89
         |           |--P. inconspicua (Alder 1844)BM88
         |           `--P. pseudareolata (Warén 1974)VR89
         |         Setia Adams & Adams 1852 [Setiinae]BR05
         |           |--*S. pulcherrima (Jeffreys 1848) [=Rissoa pulcherrima]BR17
         |           |--S. brazieri (Tenison Woods 1876) [=Rissoina (Setia) brazieri]TW76
         |           |--S. candidaL10
         |           `--S. turriculata Monterosato 1884SW04
         |         Rissocerithium nicosiai Conti & Fischer 1981TTE93
         |         ZebinostomaTTE93
         |           |--Z. nicolisi (Parona 1894)TTE93
         |           `--Z. turrita (Parona 1894)TTE93
         |         Trochoturboella tethysiana Conti & Fischer 1982TTE93
         |         Fenella crystallinaC64
         |         Trachyochrida filocinctaB50
         |         Stankovicia baicaliiformisB50
         |         Isselia Semper in Schmeltz 1874 [=Isseliella Nevill ex Weinkauff 1881]C75
         |           |--*I. mirabilis (Dunker in Schmeltz 1874) [=Rissoina mirabilis, *Isseliella mirabilis]C75
         |           |--I. aberrans (Adams 1850) [=Rissoa aberrans, Alvania aberrans]C75
         |           |--I. semitexta (Hedley 1899) (see below for synonymy)C75
         |           `--I. serrei (Bavay 1922) [=Stossichia serrei]C75
         |--Notoscrobs Powell 1927P27
         |    |--*N. ornatus Powell 1927 [=N. ornata]P61
         |    |--N. erosus (Odhner 1924)P61 [=Rissoa erosaP27, Amphithalamus erosusF26]
         |    `--N. triangula (May 1915) [=Amphithalamus triangulus]P27
         |--Onoba Adams & Adams 1852P27, BR05 [Onobidae]
         |    |--*O. striata (Adams 1797)BR17 [=Rissoa striataBR17; incl. R. striata var. saxatilisN79]
         |    |--O. oculeusCS77
         |    `--O. pelagica (Stimpson 1851)VR89
         |--Striatestea Powell 1927P27
         |    |--*S. bountyensis Powell 1927P27
         |    |--S. eulima Powell 1940P61
         |    |--S. iravadioides [=Estea iravadioides]P27
         |    `--S. janjucensis [=Estea janjucensis]P27
         `--+--Botellus Iredale 1924P27
            |    |--*B. bassianus [=Onoba bassiana]P27
            |    `--B. glomerosus (Hedley 1907) [=Onoba glomerosa]P27
               `--Austronoba Powell 1927P27
                    |--*A. candidissima (Webster 1905)P61 [=Rissoa candidissimaP27, Onoba candidissimaP27]
                    |--A. carnosa (Webster 1905)P61 [=Rissoa carnosaP27, Onoba carnosaP27]
                    |--A. iredalei Powell 1937P61
                    |--A. kermadecensis Powell 1927P27
                    |--A. martini Finlay 1928P61
                    |--A. obliquata Powell 1940P61
                    `--A. oliveri Powell 1927P27
Rissooidea incertae sedis:
  Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli 1980BV86
    `--A. pescei Giusti & Pezzoli 1980BV86
  Boleana Radoman 1973BV86
    `--B. umbilicata (Kuščer 1932)BV86
  Bracenica Radoman 1973BV86
    `--B. spiridoni Radoman 1973BV86
  Catapyrgus Climo 1974BV86
    `--C. spelaeus Climo 1974BV86
  Cavernisa Radoman 1978BV86
    `--C. zaschevi (Angelov 1959)BV86
  Cilgia Schütt 1968BV86
    `--C. dalmatica (Schütt 1961)BV86
  Coahuilix Taylor 1966BV86
    `--C. hubbsi Taylor 1966BV86
  Cochliopopsis Mori 1938BV86
    `--C. basiangulata Mori 1938BV86
  Costellina Kuščer 1933BV86
    `--C. turrita Kuščer 1933BV86
  Dalmatella Velkovrh 1970BV86
    `--D. sketi Velkovrh 1970BV86
  Falsibelgrandiella Radoman 1973BV86
    `--F. bunarica Radoman 1973BVF86
  Fissuria Boeters 1981BV86
    `--F. boui Boeters 1981BV86
  Gocea Hadžišče 1956BV86
    `--G. ohridana Hadžišče 1956BV86
  Graziana Radoman 1978BV86
    `--G. lacheineri (Küster 1852)BV86
  Heideella Backhuys & Boeters 1974BV86
    `--H. andreae Backhuys & Boeters 1974BV86
  Insignia Angelov 1972BV86
    `--I. macrostoma Angelov 1972BV86
  Kainarella Starobogatov 1972BV86
    `--K. minima Starobogatov 1972BV86
  Kerkia Radoman 1978BV86
    `--K. kusceri (Bole 1961)BV86
  Litthabitella Boeters 1970BV86
    `--L. chilodia (Westerlund 1886)BV86
  Mervicia Bole 1967BV86
    `--M. eximia Bole 1967BV86
  Ohridohauffenia Hadžišče 1956BV86
    `--O. minuta (Radoman 1955)BV86
  ‘Paulia’ Bourguignat 1882 nec Fée 1836 (ICBN) nec Gray 1840BV86
    `--P. exigua Boettger 1905BV86
  Phreatica Velkovrh 1970BV86
    `--P. bolei Velkovrh 1970BV86
  Pontobelgrandiella Radoman 1978BV86
    `--P. nitida (Angelov 1972)BV86
  Pseudavenionia Bodon & Giusti 1982BV86
    `--P. pedemontana Bodon & Giusti 1982BV86
  Strugia Radoman 1973BV86
    `--S. ohridana Radoman 1973BV86
  Terranigra Radoman 1978BV86
    `--T. kosovica Radoman 1978BV86
  Zaumia Radoman 1973BV86
    `--Z. kusceri (Hadžišče 1956)BV86
  Zavalia Radoman 1973BV86
    `--Z. vjetrenicae Radoman 1973BV86
  Baglivia Brusina 1892BV86
    |--B. karamani Kuščer 1936BV86
    `--B. tellinii (Pollonera 1898)BV86
  Daudebardiella Boettger 1905BV86
    |--D. asiana Boettger 1905BV86
    `--D. naegelei Boettger 1905BV86
  Emmericiella Pilsbry 1909BV86
    |--E. longa (Pilsbry 1909)BV86
    `--E. novimundi (Pilsbry 1909)BV86
  Hadopyrgus Climo 1974BV86
    |--H. anops Climo 1974BV86
    `--H. brevis Climo 1974BV86
  Kuschelita Climo 1974BV86
    |--K. inflata Climo 1974BV86
    `--K. mica Climo 1974BV86
  Lyhnidia Hadžišče 1956BV86
    |--L. karamani Hadžišče 1956BV86
    `--L. stankovici Hadžišče 1956BV86
  Marstoniopsis Altena 1936BV86
    |--M. croatica Schütt 1974BV86
    `--M. scholtzi (Schmidt 1856)BV86
  Moria Kuroda & Habe 1958BV86
    |--M. akiyoshiensis (Kuroda & Habe 1958)BV86
    `--M. kubotai (Kuroda & Habe 1958)BV86
  Opacuincola Ponder 1966BV86
    |--O. caeca Ponder 1966BV86
    `--O. kuscheli Climo 1974BV86
  Alzoniella Giusti & Bodon 1984BV86
    |--A. feneriensis Giusti & Bodon 1984BV86
    |--A. finalina Giusti & Bodon 1984BV86
    `--A. sigestra Giusti & Bodon 1984BV86
  Anagastina Radoman 1978BV86
    |--A. gluhodolica (Radoman 1973)BV86
    |--A. hadouphylax (Schütt 1959)BV86
    `--A. matjasici (Bole 1961)BV86
  Erythropomatiana Radoman 1978BV86
    |--E. erythropomatia (Hauffen 1856)BV86
    |--E. kerschneri (Zimmermann 1930)BV86
    `--E. verdica Radoman 1978BV86
  Hauffenia Pollonera 1898BV86
    |--H. (Hauffenia)BV86
    `--H. (Vrania Radoman 1978)BV86
         `--H. (V.) wagneri (Kuščer 1928)BV86
    |--L. compacta Boettger 1905BV86
    |--L. sarana Boettger 1905BV86
    `--L. sodalis Boettger 1905BV86
  Pterides Pilsbry 1909BV86
    |--P. bisinulabris Pilsbry 1909BV86
    |--P. pterostoma Pilsbry 1909BV86
    `--P. rhabdus Pilsbry 1909BV86
  Hadziella Kuščer 1932BV86
    |--H. anti Schütt 1960BV86
    |--H. deminuta (Bole 1961)BV86
    |--H. ephippiostoma Kuščer 1932BV86
    `--H. sketi Bole 1961BV86
  Avenionia Nicolas 1882BV86
    |--A. brevis (Draparnaud 1805)BV86
    |    |--A. b. brevisBV86
    |    |--A. b. berenguieri (Bourguignat 1882)BV86
    |    |--A. b. bourguignati (Locard 1884)BV86
    |    `--A. b. roberti Boeters 1967BV86
    |--A. ligustica Giusti & Bodon 1981BV86
    `--A. parvula Giusti & Bodon 1981BV86
  Iglica Wagner 1927BV86
    |--I. (Iglica)BV86
    `--I. (Rhaphica Schütt 1975)BV86
         |--I. (R.) bagliviaeformis Schütt 1970BV86
         |--I. (R.) bosnica Schütt 1975BV86
         |--I. (R.) illyrica Schütt 1975BV86
         |--I. (R.) maaseni Schütt 1980BV86
         `--I. (R.) sidariensis Schütt 1980BV86
  Paladilhia Bourguignat 1865BV86
    |--P. (Paladilhia)BV86
    |    |--P. (P.) bourguignati Paladilhe 1866BV86
    |    |--P. (P.) bulimoides (Michaud 1831)BV86
    |    |--P. (P.) moitessieri Bourguignat 1865BV86
    |    `--P. (P.) pleurotoma Bourguignat 1865BV86
    `--P. (Spiralix Boeters 1972)BV86
         `--P. (S.) puteana (Coutagne 1883)BV86
  Neohoratia Schütt 1961BV86
    |--N. coronadoiBV86
    |    |--N. c. coronadoiBV86
    |    `--N. c. schuelei (Boeters 1981)BV86
    |--N. epirana (Schütt 1962)BV86
    |--N. gasulli (Boeters 1981)BV86
    |--N. hadei Gittenberger 1982BV86
    |--N. minuta (Draparnaud 1805)BV86
    |--N. sturmi (Rosenhauer 1856)BV86
    `--N. subpiscinalis (Kuščer 1932)BV86
Nomina nuda: Dalmatella miljackae Bole & Velkovrh 1986BV86
             Hadziella krkae Bole & Velkovrh 1986BV86
             H. thermalis Bole & Velkovrh 1986BV86
             H. umbilicata Bole & Velkovrh 1986BV86
             Iglica (Rhaphica) karamani Schütt 1975BV86
             Marstoniopsis vrbasi Bole & Velkovrh 1986BV86

Isselia semitexta (Hedley 1899) [=Nassa semitexta, Arcularia semitexta, Cantharus semitextus, Stossichia intertexta; incl. Tritonidea seurati Couturier 1907, S. seurati]C75

‘Rissoa’ philippi Aradas & Maggiore 1844 [=R. pusilla Philippi 1836 non Trochus pusillus Brocchi 1814, *Pusillina pusilla]BR17

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM88] Bieler, R. & P. M. Mikkelsen. 1988. Anatomy and reproductive biology of two western Atlantic species of Vitrinellidae, with a case of protandrous hermaphroditism in the Rissoacea. Nautilus 102 (1): 1–29.

[BV86] Bole, J., & F. Velkovrh. 1986. Mollusca from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 177–208. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

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