Ropalidia

 Ropalidia marginata, copyright University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore.

Belongs within: Polistinae.

Ropalidia is a diverse genus of social wasps found in warmer regions of the Old World, characterised by fusion of the tergite and sternite of the second gastral segment. Most species build nests as simple, stalked, uncovered combs, and there is no external distinction between workers and reproductives (Richards 1978).

Characters (from Richards 1978): Humerus with no keel posteriorly in front of first thoracic spiracle. Mesoscutum not margined opposite tegula. Muscle-slit of propodeum usually shorter and rounded at top. Second gastral tergite and sternite more or less solidly fused.

<==Ropalidia Guérin-Méneville 1831 [=Icaria Saussure 1853, Rhopalidia Guérin-Méneville 1838]C85
    |--R. (Ropalidia)C85
    |    |--*R. (R.) maculiventris Guérin 1831 [=*Icaria maculiventris]C85
    |    |--R. (R.) bicolorR78
    |    |--R. (R.) bispinosaR78
    |    |--R. (R.) eboraca Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (R.) erraticaR78
    |    |--R. (R.) fasciola Richards 1978 [=Icaria fasciata Smith 1858 non Eumenes fasciata Fabricius 1804]R78
    |    |--R. (R.) fulvopruinosa (Cameron 1906) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) fulvopruinosus]C85
    |    |--R. (R.) humboldtiR78
    |    |--R. (R.) irritataR78
    |    |--R. (R.) mimikaeR78
    |    |--R. (R.) mondoensisR78
    |    |--R. (R.) prattiR78
    |    `--R. (R.) semihyalinataR78
    |--R. (Anthreneida Whie 1841) [incl. Icariastrum von Dalla Torre 1904]R78
    |    |--R. (A.) sumatrae (Weber 1801) [=Vespa sumatrae; incl. *Anthreneida coronata White 1841, R. speciosa]R78
    |    |--R. (A.) erythrospila (Cameron 1908)R78, NK11 [=R. malayana erythrospilaR78]
    |    |--R. (A.) latebalteata (Cameron 1902)R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) lugubris (Smith 1858)R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) malayana (Cameron 1903)R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) modesta (Smith 1858)R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) nurseiR78
    |    |--R. (A.) opulenta (Smith 1857)R78, NK11 [=Icaria opulentaR78, *Icariastrum opulentumR78]
    |    |--R. (A.) ornatipes (Cameron 1900)R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) pilosa (Smith 1854)R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) rufocollaris van der Vecht 1941R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (A.) rufoplagiata (Cameron 1905)R78, NK11
    |    |    |--R. r. rufoplagiataR78
    |    |    `--R. r. gravelyiR78
    |    `--R. (A.) sericeaR78
    |--R. (Icariella Dalla Torre 1904)C85 [=IcarieliaR78]
    |    |--R. (*I.) flavopicta (Smith 1857) [=Icaria flavopicta]C85
    |    |    |--R. f. flavopictaR78
    |    |    `--R. f. javanica van der Vecht 1962R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) bensoni Richards 1978R78
    |    |--R. (I.) conservatorR78 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--R. (I.) deminutiva [=R. diminutiva (l. c.)]R78
    |    |--R. (I.) festinaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) gemmeaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) insolensR78
    |    |--R. (I.) integraR78
    |    |--R. (I.) ivorinaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) leopoldiR78
    |    |--R. (I.) lepida van der Vecht 1962R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) longipetiolataR78
    |    |--R. (I.) lorianaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) malaisei van der Vecht 1962R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) montanaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) nigrior Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) novaeguineae (von Schulthess 1913) [=Parapolybia novaeguineae, Polybia novaeguineae]R78
    |    |--R. (I.) opifex van der Vecht 1962R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) romandi (Le Guillou 1841)C85 [=Polistes romandiC85, Icaria romandiR78]
    |    |    |--R. r. romandiC85
    |    |    `--R. r. cabeti (Saussure 1853) [=Icaria cabeti]C85
    |    `--R. (I.) zonataR78
    |--R. (Icariola Dalla Torre 1904) [=Zuba Cheesman 1952]C85
    |    |--R. (*I.) gregaria (Saussure 1853) [=Icaria gregaria, R. (*Zuba) gregaria]C85
    |    |    |--R. g. gregaria [incl. Polistes bioculata Fabricius 1804 (n. d.)]C85
    |    |    `--R. g. spilocephala (Cameron 1906)C85 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--R. (I.) anarchicaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) aristocratica (de Saussure 1853)R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) bicinctaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) bilineataR78
    |    |--R. (I.) binghami van der Vecht 1941R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) canariaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) capensis [incl. R. ambigua]R78
    |    |--R. (I.) carinataR78
    |    |--R. (I.) celebensis van der Vecht 1941R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) cincta (Lepeletier 1836)R78, GS61 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--R. (I.) colorataR78
    |    |--R. (I.) constitutionalisR78
    |    |--R. (I.) copiaria (de Saussure 1862)R78, NK11 [=Icarielia copiariaR78, R. aristocratica copiariaR78]
    |    |--R. (I.) cyathiformis (Fabricius 1804)R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) darwini Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) deceptor (Smith 1864) [=Icaria deceptor]C85
    |    |--R. (I.) distigmaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) dubiaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) duchaussoyiR78
    |    |--R. (I.) elegantula Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) eurostoma Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) fasciata (Fabricius 1804) [=Eumenes fasciata; incl. R. picta]R78
    |    |--R. (I.) fluviatilisR78
    |    |--R. (I.) formosa [incl. R. hova]R78
    |    |    |--R. f. formosaR78
    |    |    `--R. ‘hova’ minorR78
    |    |--R. (I.) galimatiaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) gracilenta Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) gracilis (Smith 1859) [=Icaria gracilis]R78
    |    |--R. (I.) grandidieriR78
    |    |--R. (I.) granulata van der Vecht 1941R78, NK11
    |    |    |--R. g. granulataR78
    |    |    `--R. g. borneensisR78
    |    |--R. (I.) guttatipennisR78
    |    |--R. (I.) hirsuta Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) hongkongensisR78
    |    |--R. (I.) horni Sonan 1938R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) impetuosa (Smith 1860) [=Icaria impetuosa]R78
    |    |--R. (I.) interrupta van der Vecht 1941 [=R. variegata interrupta]C85
    |    |    |--R. i. interruptaC85
    |    |    `--R. i. flavinoda van der Vecht 1941 [=R. variegata flavinoda]C85
    |    |--R. (I.) jacobsoni (du Buysson 1908)R78, NK11 [=R. variegata jacobsoniR78]
    |    |--R. (I.) kurandae Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) laticincta van der Vecht 1962R78, NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) mackayensis Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) magnanima van der Vecht 1941NK11
    |    |--R. (I.) marginata (Lepeletier 1836)C85 [=Epipona marginataR78]
    |    |    |--R. m. marginataC85
    |    |    |--R. m. jucunda (Cameron 1898) [=Icaria jucunda]C85
    |    |    `--R. m. sundiacaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) mathematica (Smith 1860)R78, NK11
    |    |    |--R. m. mathematicaR78
    |    |    `--R. m. binotataR78
    |    |--R. (I.) mutabilis Richards 1978C85
    |    |    |--R. m. mutabilisC85
    |    |    `--R. m. torresiana Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) nitidulaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) nobilisR78
    |    |--R. (I.) pendulaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) petulansR78
    |    |--R. (I.) plebiana Richards 1978C85 [=R. plebeianaR78, Icaria plebeja Saussure 1863 non Saussure 1862C85]
    |    |--R. (I.) politicaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) pomicolorR78
    |    |--R. (I.) proletaria Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) ranavaliR78
    |    |--R. (I.) revolutionalis (Saussure 1853)C85 [=Icaria revolutionalisC85, I. revolutinalis (l. c.)R78]
    |    |--R. (I.) schulthessiR78
    |    |--R. (I.) scitula (Bingham 1897)R78, NK11 [=Icarielia scitulaR78]
    |    |--R. (I.) socialistica (Saussure 1853) [=Icaria socialistica]C85
    |    |--R. (I.) spatulataR78
    |    |--R. (I.) timida van der Vecht 1962R78, NK11 [=Icarielia timidaR78]
    |    |--R. (I.) tomentosaR78
    |    |--R. (I.) trichophthalma Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) turneri Richards 1978C85
    |    |--R. (I.) unicolor (Smith 1859)R78, SK05
    |    |--R. (I.) variabilisR78
    |    |--R. (I.) variegata (Smith 1852)R78
    |    `--R. (I.) vitripennisR78
    |--R. (Paraicaria Gribodo 1892)R78
    |    |--R. (P.) bicolorata van der Vecht 1962 [incl. *Paraicaria bicolor Gribodo 1892 non Icaria bicolor Smith 1864]R78
    |    `--R. (P.) nigerrima van der Vecht 1962R78, NK11
    `--R. (Polistratus Cameron 1906)C85
         |--R. (P.) brunnea (Smith 1858)R78 [=Icaria brunneaC85; incl. R. alleniR78, *Polistratus cariniscutis Cameron 1906C85]
         |--R. (P.) bambusae Richards 1978R78
         |--R. (P.) domestica Cheesman 1952R78
         |--R. (P.) latetergum Richards 1978C85
         |--R. (P.) melania Richards 1978R78
         |--R. (P.) mysolica [incl. Odynerus conspicuus]R78
         |--R. (P.) nigra [incl. R. spilostoma]R78
         |--R. (P.) sepicana Richards 1978R78
         |--R. (P.) wudaiR78
         |    |--R. w. wudaiR78
         |    `--R. w. trullissimaR78
         `--R. (P.) xanthuraR78
Ropalidia incertae sedis:
  R. aethiopica (Du Buysson 1906) [=Icaria aethiopica]GS61
  R. artifex (de Saussure 1853)NK11
    |--R. a. artifexR78
    `--R. a. fuscataR78
  R. bipartita van der Vecht 1962NK11
  R. crassa van der Vecht 1941NK11
  R. curvilineata (Cameron 1908)NK11
  R. dichroma van der Vecht 1941NK11
  R. extrema (van der Vecht 1962)NK11
  R. flavobrunnea van der Vecht 1962NK11
  R. fraternaR78
  R. hongkongensisjuncta (de Saussure 1854)NK11
  R. luzonensis Kojima 1996NK11
  R. nigrescens van der Vecht 1962NK11
  R. obscura Gusenleitner 1996NK11
  R. orhraceaNK11
  R. ornaticeps (Cameron 1908)NK11
  R. palawana (Kojima & Tano 1985)NK11
  R. philippinensis (de Saussure 1854)NK11
  R. plebeja (Saussure 1862)NK11 [=Icaria plebejaC85]
  R. pseudomalayana Kojima 1996NK11
  R. punctum (Fabricius 1804) [=Polistes punctum]C85
  R. socialis (de Saussure 1862)NK11
  R. stigma (Smith 1858)NK11 [=Polybia stigmaR78]
  R. trimaculata van der Vecht 1962NK11

Ropalidia (Icariella) conservatorR78 [incl. R. decorata (Smith 1858)R78, NK11, R. goodfellowiR78, R. limatulaR78, R. waigeuensisR78, R. xanthopodaR78]

Ropalidia (Icariola) cincta (Lepeletier 1836)R78, GS61 [=Epipona cinctaGS61, Icaria cinctaGS61; incl. I. tricinctella Gribodo 1895GS61]

Ropalidia (Icariola) gregaria spilocephala (Cameron 1906)C85 [=Icaria spilocephalaC85; incl. R. gregaria inquieta Cheesman 1952R78, I. kohni du Buysson 1909R78, R. gregaria var. tolerans Cheesman 1952R78]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[NK11] Nicholas, A. S., J. Kojima, M. Y. Ruslan, M. Fauzi & A. B. Idris. 2011. A list of social vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) from Kuala Lompat, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 59–74.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[SK05] Saito, F., J. Kojima, R. Ubaidillah & S. Hartini. 2005. Paper wasps of the genus Polistes in eastern Lesser Sunda Islands (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 102–114.

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