Rosales

Prairie crab apple Malus ioensis, copyright Dan Mullen.

Belongs within: Fabidae.
Contains: Rhamnaceae, Elaeagnaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, Moraceae, Celtidaceae, Crataegus, Cotoneaster, Rosoideae, Spiraeoideae, Prunus, Sorbus, Pyrus.

The Rosales are a clade of flowering plants uniting the Rosaceae with members of the previously recognised orders Rhamnales and Urticales. Members of the last group are commonly wind-pollinated. Cecropia, a Neotropical genus of trees with large, circular, palmately lobed leaves, is a prominent member of the rainforest flora within its distribution. The Cannabaceae are a small family uniting two widely cultivated species, Cannabis sativa (marijuana) and Humulus lupulus (hops). Humulus lupulus is a perennial climbing herb whose cone-shaped flowers are used to flower beer. Dirachma is a small genus of shrubs and trees found in Somalia and Socotra, distinguished by the presence of eight sepals, petals and stamens.

The Rosaceae are a diverse group of plants with typically five petals and sepals to a flower, and usually with numerous stamens forming a complete ring within the flower. They vary from trees to herbs and climbers and are cosmopolitan in distribution but most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere temperate zone. The Rosaceae are divided between four subfamilies, distinguishing features of which include the fruits: Rosoideae generally produce aggregate fruits whereas Amygdaloideae produce drupes and Maloideae produce pomes. The Spiraeoideae have been recognised as a group of shrubs mostly producing aggregate fruits, but monophyly of this group is uncertain. Commercially significant members of the Maloideae include the apple Malus pumila and the pears of the genus Pyrus.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): mucilage cells present; roots diarch; prismatic crystals in ray cells (absent in Barbeyaceae and Elaeagnaceae); inflorescence cymose; hypanthium present, nectariferous, sepals valvate, petals clawed; stigma dry; ovule 1/carpel, epitropous, micropyle endostomal; calyx and/or hypanthium persistent in fruit.

<==RosalesWM09
    |--+--RhamnalesT00
    |  |    |--RhamnaceaeWM09
    |  |    |--Dirachma [Dirachmaceae]T00
    |  |    |--Barbeya [Barbeyaceae, Barbeyales, Barbeyanae]T00
    |  |    `--ElaeagnaceaeT00
    |  `--UrticalesHQC03
    |       |  i. s.: CecropiaWI-B09 [CecropiaceaeHQC03]
    |       |           |--C. eximaK06
    |       |           |--C. obtusifoliaWI-B09
    |       |           |--C. peltataK06
    |       |           |--C. pittieriRJ11
    |       |           `--C. reticulataH11
    |       |--UlmaceaeWM09
    |       `--+--+--UrticaceaeWM09
    |          |  `--MoraceaeWM09
    |          `--+--CeltidaceaeWM09
    |             `--Cannabaceae [Cannabineae]WM09
    |                  |--Cannabis sativa [incl. C. indica, C. ruderalis]H90
    |                  |--Humulus lupulusHQC03
    |                  `--HumulopsisT00
    `--Rosaceae [Malaceae]WM09
         |  i. s.: CrataegusPCM03
         |         Mespilus germanicaPCM03, R-CT01
         |         CydoniaY98
         |           |--C. oblongaY98
         |           |--C. sinensisC55b
         |           `--C. vulgarisC55b
         |         OsteomelesYY22
         |         MaddeniaYY22
         |         NuttaliaYY22
         |         ParastemonYY22
         |         SibiraeaYY22
         |         LecostomionYY22
         |         Eriobotrya japonicaH06 [=Photinia japonicaLO98]
         |         Aruncus dioicus [incl. A. sylvestris]H90
         |           |  i. s.: A. d. var. pubescens [incl. A. vulgaris]H93
         |           |--A. d. ssp. dioicusO88
         |           `--A. d. ssp. triternatusO88
         |         CotoneasterV09
         |         Pourthiaea villosaLO98
         |           |--P. v. var. villosaLO98
         |           `--P. v. var. laevis [incl. Eleagnus longipes]LO98
         |         PhotiniaG07b
         |           |--P. × fraseri Dress 1961CD07
         |           |--P. glabraLO98
         |           `--P. pyrifoliaDI03
         |         Chaenomeles sinensis [=Pyrus chinensis]LO98
         |         Rhaphiolepis [=Raphiolepis]H90
         |           |--R. indicaH90
         |           |--R. umbellataMH98
         |           |    |--R. u. var. umbellataMH98
         |           |    `--R. u. var. integerrimaMH98
         |           `--R. wrightianaHTN02
         |         PyracanthaH06
         |           |--P. angustifoliaH06
         |           |--P. crenulataH06
         |           |--P. fortuneanaH90
         |           `--P. rogersianaH90
         |         Micromeles Decaisne 1874 [=Pyrus sect. Micromeles Hooker 1878, Sorbus sect. Micromeles Rehder 1927]G07b
         |           |--M. corymbiferaG07b
         |           |--M. cuspidataG07b
         |           |--M. griffithiiG07b
         |           |--M. meghalayensisG07b
         |           |--M. polycarpaG07b
         |           |--M. rhamnoidesG07b
         |           `--M. thomsoniiG07b
         |         AmelanchierH91
         |           |--A. alnifoliaH93
         |           |    |--A. a. var. alnifoliaH93
         |           |    |--A. a. var. pumilaH93
         |           |    `--A. a. var. semiintegrifolia [incl. A. florida]H93
         |           |--A. canadensisH59
         |           |--A. ovalisH91
         |           |--A. utahensis [incl. A. utahensis ssp. covillei, A. pallida]H93
         |           `--A. vulgarisC55a
         |         SorbariaV09
         |           |--S. sorbifoliaRJ11
         |           `--S. tomentosaV09
         |         ChamaebatiaH93
         |           |--C. australisH93
         |           `--C. foliolosaH93
         |         Chamaebatiaria millefoliumH93
         |         Coleogyne ramosissimaH93
         |         Heteromeles arbutifolia [incl. H. arbutifolia var. macrocarpa]H93
         |         HolodiscusH93
         |           |--H. discolor (see below for synonymy)H93
         |           `--H. microphyllusH93
         |                |--H. m. var. microphyllus [incl. H. microphyllus var. sericeus]H93
         |                `--H. m. var. glabrescensH93
         |         Luetkea pectinataH93
         |         Oemleria cerasiformis [=Osmaronia cerasiformis]H93
         |         Peraphyllum ramosissimumH93
         |         Petrophyton caespitosumH93
         |           |--P. c. ssp. caespitosumH93
         |           `--P. c. ssp. acuminatumH93
         |         Crataegites borealis Samylina 1960CBH93
         |         Psilatricolporites undulatusCBH93
         |         Acia Schreb. 1791KC01
         |         Tylosperma Botsch. 1952KC01
         |--RosoideaeEH03
         |--SpiraeoideaeT00
         |--Amygdaloideae [Amygdalaceae, Prunoideae]T00
         |    |--ExochordaT00
         |    |--OmleriaT00
         |    |--PrincepiaT00
         |    |--PrunusEH03
         |    |--Laurocerasus carolinianaM93
         |    |--PersicaC55b
         |    |    |--P. laevisC55b
         |    |    `--P. vulgarisC55b
         |    `--AmygdalusC55b
         |         |--A. communisC55b
         |         `--A. nanaC55a
         `--Maloideae [Pomoideae, Pyroideae]G07a
              |--KageneckiaT00
              |--Vauquelinia californicaT00, CP13
              |--LindleyaT00
              |--PorteranthusT00
              |--SorbusG07a
              |--Docynia Decaisne 1874G05
              |    |--D. hookeriana Decaisne 1874G05
              |    `--D. indica (Wallich) Decaisne 1874 (see below for synonymy)G05
              |         |--D. i. var. indicaG05
              |         `--D. i. var. griffithiana (Decaisne) Ghora 2005 [=D. griffithiana Decaisne 1874]G05
              |--MalusG07b
              |    |--M. domesticaSB07
              |    |--M. fuscaH93
              |    |--M. ioensisRJ11
              |    |--M. pumilaFP01
              |    |--M. purpureaeSB07
              |    |--M. sieboldii [incl. Pyrus toringo]LO98
              |    `--M. sylvestrisSW03
              `--PyrusG07b

Docynia indica (Wallich) Decaisne 1874 [=Pyrus indica Colebr. ex Wallich 1831, Cydonia indica (Wallich) Spach 1834, Eriolobus indica (Wallich) Schneid. 1906]G05

Holodiscus discolor [incl. H. boursieri, H. discolor var. delnortensis, H. discolor var. dumosus, H. discolor var. franciscanus]H93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

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[DI03] Denboh, T., T. Ichimura, D. Hendrayanti & A. W. Coleman. 2003. Closterium moniliferum-ehrenbergii (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) species complex viewed from the 1506 group I intron and ITS2 of nuclear rDNA. Journal of Phycology 39: 960–977.

[EH03] Eriksson, T., M. S. Hibbs, A. D. Yoder, C. F. Delwiche & M. J. Donoghue. 2003. The phylogeny of Rosoideae (Rosaceae) based on sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnL/F region of chloroplast DNA. International Journal of Plant Science 164 (2): 197–211.

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[HQC03] Hadiah, J. T., C. J. Quinn & B. J. Conn. 2003. Phylogeny of Elatostema (Urticaceae) using chloroplast DNA data. Telopea 10 (1): 235–246.

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[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

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[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

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[PCM03] Phipps, J. B., S. Cafferty & J. A. Macklin. 2003. Lectotypification of Crataegus coccinea L. and its conspecificity with C. pedicellata Sarg. (Rosaceae). Taxon 52: 337–338.

[R-CT01] Ragusa-di Chiara, S., & H. Tsolakis. 2001. Phytoseiid faunas of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Sicily. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 522–529. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

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[SW03] Song, D., & Q. Wang. 2003. Systematics of the longicorn beetle genus Coptomma Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 429–447.

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