Rubiaceae

Luculia gratissima, copyright A. J. T. Johnsingh.

Belongs within: Gentianales.
Contains: CanthiumRandia, Rubioideae, Ixoroideae, Cinchonoideae.

The Rubiaceae are a cosmopolitan group of flowering plants usually bearing radial flowers with four-lobed corollas, often associated in tight cymes or clusters. Molecular phylogenies indicate a basal position within the family for Luculia, a genus of trees and shrubs found in the Himalayan region and southern China, characterised by red to pink or white moderate-sized flowers (calyx and corolla lobes up to two centimetres) and capsular, woody fruits. Coptosapelta is an eastern Asian genus of lianas and scandent shrubs bearing subglobose, woody capsular fruits with winged seeds.

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Annual, perennial, shrub, vine, or tree. Leaves generally opposite, entire; stipules generally on stalk, sometimes leaf-like (then leaves apparently whorled and stipules considered leaves), adjacent pairs sometimes fused. Inflorescence a cyme, panicle, cluster, or flower solitary, generally terminal and more or less axillary. Flower generally bisexual; calyx generally more or less four-lobed, sometimes absent; corolla generally radial, four-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate with corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1, more or less fused if 2. Fruit two or four nutlets or a berry, drupe, or capsule.

<==Rubiaceae [Cinchoneae, Coffeoideae, Coptosapelteae]
    |--LuculiaRB01
    |    |--L. grandifoliaRB01
    |    |--L. gratissimaSK02
    |    `--L. pinceanaRB01
    `--+--RubioideaeRB01
       |--CoptosapeltaRB01
       |    |--C. diffusaBM00
       |    `--C. flavescensRB01
       `--+--IxoroideaeRB01
          `--CinchonoideaeRB01
Rubiaceae incertae sedis:
  AtractogyneYY22
  SiphonandriumYY22
  Alibertia edulisBJ99
  AmajouaYY22
  AnthispermumYY22
  BasanacanthaYY22
  ByrsophyllumYY22
  CrocyllisYY22
  DuroiaYY22
  GarapaticaYY22
  KotchubaeaYY22
  MelanopsidiumYY22
  MorindopsisYY22
  StachyarrhenaYY22
  ThieleodoxaYY22
  BataprineYY22
  BobeaYY22
  CuvieraYY22
  Hodgkinsonia ovatifloraYY22, H97
  MyonimaYY22
  Timonius timonLK14
  BathysaYY22
  Pouchetia Richard ex de Candolle 1830FT93
    `--P. gilletiiBJ99
  PsydraxLK14
    |--P. odorataLK14
    |    |--P. o. ssp. odorataLK14
    |    `--P. o. ssp. arnhemicaLK14
    |--P. pendulinaLK14
    `--P. suaveolensG04
  RutideaBM00
    |--R. loesenerianaK17
    |--R. orientalisBM00
    `--R. tenuicaulis Krause 1917K17
  Schenckia blumenaviensisBM00
  AidiaBJ99
    |--A. micranthaBJ99
    `--A. racemosaLK14
  Aoranthe pendulifloraBJ99
  BertieraBJ99
    |--B. brevifloraBJ99
    |--B. longiloba Krause 1917K17
    |--B. obversa Krause 1917K17
    `--B. retrofractaK17
  Burchellia bubalinaBJ99
  Calochone redingiiBJ99
  CanthiumBJ99
  Casasia clusiifoliaBJ99
  ChomeliaBJ99
  Cremaspora trifloraBJ99
  Cubanola domingensisBJ99
  Didymosalpinx noraeBJ99
  Euclinia longifloraBJ99
  Feretia aeruginescensBJ99
  Genipa americanaBJ99
  Glossostipula concinnaBJ99
  Gonzalagunia affinisBJ99
  Heinsia crinitaBJ99
  HippotisBJ99
  Kailarsenia ochreataBJ99
  Keetia zanzibaricaBJ99
  Kraussia floribundaBJ99
  Ladenbergia pavoniiBJ99
  Leptactina platyphyllaBJ99
  Massularia acuminataBJ99
  MeynaBJ99
    |--M. laxifloraP03
    `--M. tetraphyllaBJ99
  OxyanthusBJ99
    |--O. macrophyllusK17
    |--O. molliramis Krause 1917K17
    |--O. pyriformisBJ99
    `--O. zanguebaricusBJ99
  Paracoffea melanocarpaBJ99
  Porterandia crosbyiBJ99
  Posoqueria latifoliaBJ99
  Pseudosabicea arboreaBJ99
  Psilanthus manniiBJ99
  Rachicallis americanaBJ99
  Ramosmania rodriguesiiBJ99
  RandiaBJ99
  Rosenbergiodendron longiflorumBJ99
  Rothmannia longifloraBJ99
  SabiceaBJ99
    |--S. speiosaM09
    `--S. villosaBJ99
  Sukunia longipesBJ99
  Tamridaea capsuliferaBJ99
  TarennaBJ99
    |--T. cymosaBJ99
    |--T. dallachianaLK14
    |    |--T. d. ssp. dallachianaLK14
    |    `--T. d. ssp. expandensLK14
    |--T. neurophyllaBJ99
    `--T. pentameraLK14
  TricalysiaBJ99
    |--T. cryptocalyxBJ99
    |--T. malaccensisJ06
    `--T. ovalifoliaBJ99
  Plectronia Linnaeus 1767BR65
    |--P. attenuataR44
    |--P. formicarum Krause 1917K17
    |--P. latifolia [=Canthium latifolium]BR65
    |--P. molundensis Krause 1917K17
    |--P. parvifloraMa72
    `--P. rubrinervis Krause 1917K17
  Mastixiodendron pachyclados (Sch.) Melch. 1925 [=Fagraea pachyclados Schumann in Schumann & Lauterbach 1905]C95
  Chione venosaJ87
  Stevensia hotteanaJ87
  XeromphisKJ05
    |--X. spinosaKJ05
    `--X. uliginosaMi72
  Thecagonum ovalifoliumP03
  WendlandiaP03
    |--W. exsertaP03
    |--W. heyneiMi72
    `--W. tinctoriaP03
  Caelospermum reticulatumB00
  Kelloggia galioidesH93
  Ixorophyllum ancepsCBH93
  Paleorubiaceophyllum eocenicum (Berry) Roth & Dilcher 1979CBH93
  Rubiaceocarpum markgrafii Kräusel 1939 [=R. markgrafi]CBH93
  ‘Triporotetradites’ nachterstedtensisCBH93
  RetiniphyllumAS02
  Ravnia triflora [incl. Lagenanthus parviflorus Ewan 1952]SK02
  Didymochlamys Hook. 1872KC01
  Disperma Gmel. 1792KC01
  Higginsia Pers. 1805KC01
  Jackia Wall. 1823KC01
  Piringa Juss. 1820KC01
  Psathyra Spreng. 1818KC01
  Schachtia Karst. 1859KC01
  ‘Ludwigia’ erigata Linné 1767 [incl. L. triflora Desr. in Lamk 1792 (nom. illeg.)]R77
  CreaghiaT-W89
  LucinaeaT-W89
  TrisciadiaT-W89
  GonyaneraT-W89
  TetralophaT-W89
  ProscephaliumT-W89
  CleisocrateraT-W89
  MesopteraT-W89
  LitosanthesT-W89
  Pelagodendron vitienseW17

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AS02] Albert, V. A., & L. Struwe. 2002. Gentianaceae in context. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 1–20. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413–435.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Loganiaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 132–188. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[H97] Hamilton, A. G. 1897. On domatia in certain Australian and other plants. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (4): 758–792, pl. 57.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KJ05] Katewa, S. S., A. Jain, B. L. Chaudhary & P. Galav. 2005. Some unreported medicinal uses of plants from the tribal area of Southern Rajasthan. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 121–130.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K17] Krause, K. 1917. Rubiaceae africanae. IV. (VIII). Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54: 347–357.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[Ma72] Mathew, D. N. 1972. The ecology of the baya in Rajampet, Cuddapah Dt., A.P. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 188–191.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[Mi72] Mitra, S. N. 1972. Observations on the vegetation of the Upper Damodar catchment area. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 17–25.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[R77] Raven, P. H. 1977. Onagraceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 98–113.

[R44] Rayment, T. 1944. A critical revision of species in the zonata group of Anthophora by new characters (part I). Dobutu Gaku—Iho 1 (1): 1–33.

[RB01] Razafimandimbison, S. G., & B. Bremer. 2001. Tribal delimitation of Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae): inference from molecular and morphological data. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71: 515–538.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[W17] Wagner, R. 1916–1917. Zur Morphologie der Boroniee Myrtopsis macrocarpa Schltr. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54: 269–278.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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