Dog weed Opercularia vaginata, from Porteous Park.

Belongs within: Rubiaceae.
Contains: Coussareeae, Morindeae, Spermacoceae, Paederieae, Anthospermeae.

The Rubioideae is a large clade within the plant family Rubiaceae, members of which have valvate aestivation, an indumentum of septated hairs, and contain raphides (calcium oxalate crystals). Subgroups of the Rubioideae include the Ophiorrhizeae, characterised by the production of dry fruits containing many very small ‘dust’ seeds (Bremer & Manen 2000).

Characters (from Bremer & Manen 2000): Shrubs, herbs, or less commonly trees. Raphides present. Heterostylous flowers common. Stipules entire, bifid or often fimbriate. Corolla aestivation always valvate. Ovary 1-12-1ocular, most often 2-1ocular either with many or with single ovules in each locule, more rarely two or few in each locule. Fruits dry or fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent.

<==Rubioideae (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Henriquesia Spruce ex Benth. 1854KC01 [HenriquesieaeT00]
    |         LathraeocarpeaeBM00
    |--Ophiorrhizeae [Ophiorrhizoideae, Pomazoteae]BM00
    |    |  i. s.: Coptophyllum [incl. Pomazota]BM00
    |    |         SpiradiclisBM00
    |    |--Neurocalyx zeylanicusBM00
    |    `--+--Xanthophytum [incl. Paedicalyx, Xanthophytopsis]BM00
    |       |    |--X. capitellatumBM00
    |       |    `--X. ferrugineumH03
    |       `--+--Lerchea bracteataBM00
    |          `--OphiorrhizaBM00
    |               |--O. mungosBM00
    |               `--O. treutleriD07
    `--+--Urophylleae [Pauridiantheae]BM00
       |    |  i. s.: Amphidasya ambiguaBM00
       |    |         Commitheca liebrachtsianaBM00
       |    |         Maschalocorymbus corymbosusBM00
       |    |--Pravinaria leucocarpaBM00
       |    `--+--PraraviniaBM00
       |       |    |--P. densifloraBM00
       |       |    `--P. suberosaBM00
       |       `--+--Pauridiantha paucinervisBM00
       |          `--Urophyllum ellipticumBM00
       `--+--Colletoecema dewevreiLRR19
          `--+--+--Perama [Perameae]BM00
             |  `--Lasiantheae [Dressleriopsideae]BM00
             |       |--TrichostachysBM00
             |       |--Metabolus [incl. Allaeophania]BM00
             |       `--LasianthusBM00
             |            |--L. pedunculatusBM00
             |            |--L. purpureusA78
             |            `--L. strigosusLRR19
                `--+--+--Schizocolea linderiLRR19
                   |  |--Craterispermum [Craterispermeae]BM00
                   |  |    `--C. brachynematumBM00
                   |  `--MorindeaeBM00
                      |  |    |--Danais xanthorrhoeaLRR19
                      |  |    |--SchismatocladaBM00
                      |  |    `--PayeraBM00
                      |  `--SpermacoceaeLRR19
                         |  |  `--Dunnia sinensisLRR19
                         |  `--ArgostemmateaeBM00
                         |       |--Argostemma hookeriBM00
                         |       `--Mycetia malayanaBM00

Rubioideae [Anthospermoideae, Aparinoideae, Cephaelidoideae, Coccocypseloideae, Gaertnerieae, Gaertneroideae, Hedyotidoideae, Manettioideae, Opercularioideae, Paederioideae, Pomazotoideae, Richardioideae, Spermacocceae, Spermacocoideae, Urophylloideae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[BM00] Bremer, B., & J.-F. Manen. 2000. Phylogeny and classification of the subfamily Rubioideae (Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 225: 43–72.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LRR19] Löfstrand, S. D., S. G. Razafimandimbison & C. Rydin. 2019. Phylogeny of Coussareeae (Rubioideae, Rubiaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 305: 293–304.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

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