Rutelinae

Rutela lineola, copyright Romanlabrousse.

Belongs within: Melolonthinae.
Contains: Adoretus, DynastinaeAnomala, Chrysina, Anoplognathina.

The Rutelinae are a group of stout, usually brightly coloured and metallic scarab beetles. The two claws on each leg are unequal in size and independently movable; exceptionally, one of the claws may be lost. The margin of the elytra may carry a membranous fringe but this is absent in members of the Rutelini and some Anoplognathini.

Larvae are found in soil and (where known) feed on organic matter. Adults of several genera feed on foliage and may cause severe defoliation of trees but others are nocturnal and may not feed (Cassis & Weir 1992). The Japanese beetle Popillia japonica is regarded as a severe pest in North America.

Members of the tribes Rutelini and Anomalini have the labrum horizontal and flexibly attached to the clypeus whereas other tribes have the labrum vertical and fixed in place.

Characters (from Cassis & Weir 1992): Adults with head and pronotum lacking prominences; elytra often with membranous margin beneath, pygidium exposed; tarsal claws unequal, large and movable; abdominal spiracles strongly diverging, several lying on abdominal sternites and at least one pair exposed. Larva with head not strongly punctate; apical antennal segment about as wide as penultimate; labrum asymmetrical with deeply pigmented notch on right side of midline; mandible with ventral oval stridulatory area; stridulatory teeth on dorsal edge of maxilla with anteriorly directed points; galea and lacinia fused to form mala; legs large, hind coxa larger than width of clypeus; anal cleft transverse; sternum 9 without raster of longitudinal rows of spines.

<==Rutelinae [Rutelides]
    |--+--DynastinaeMF15
    |  `--+--AnomaliniRJS02
    |     |    |--AnomalaA06
    |     |    |--Leptohoplia Saylor 1935RJS02
    |     |    |    `--L. testaceipennisRJS02
    |     |    |--Anomalacra Casey 1915RJS02
    |     |    |    `--A. clypealisRJS02
    |     |    |--Strigoderma Burmeister 1844 [incl. Alamona Casey 1915, Strigodermella Casey 1915]RJS02
    |     |    |    |--S. arboricolaRJS02
    |     |    |    `--S. marginatum Ol. 1789 [incl. S. cinctum]FS90
    |     |    `--Popillia Dejean 1821MF15, RJS02
    |     |         |--P. atrocoeruleaAJ30
    |     |         |--P. formosanaAJ30
    |     |         `--P. japonicaH-O10
    |     `--+--Peltonotus nasutusMF15
    |        `--RuteliniCW92
    |             |--Chrysophora chrysochlora (Latreille 1811)B14
    |             |--ChrysinaB14
    |             |--FruhstorferiaRJS02
    |             |--PeperonotaRJS02
    |             |--Heterosternus buprestoides Dupont 1832RJS02, B14
    |             |--Parachrysina Bates 1888RJS02
    |             |    `--P. borealisRJS02
    |             |--Calomacraspis Bates 1888RJS02
    |             |    `--C. splendensRJS02
    |             |--Ectinoplectron Ohaus 1915RJS02
    |             |    `--E. oryctoides [incl. Pelidnota howdeni]RJS02
    |             |--Homoiosternus Ohaus 1934RJS02
    |             |    `--H. beckeriRJS02
    |             |--Parabyrsopolis Ohaus 1915 [incl. Byrsopolis Burmeister 1844, Parareoda Casey 1915]RJS02
    |             |    `--P. chihuahuaeRJS02
    |             |--Plesiosternus Morón 1983RJS02
    |             |    `--P. setosusRJS02
    |             |--Rutelisca Bates 1888RJS02
    |             |    `--R. durangoanaRJS02
    |             |--Cotalpa Burmeister 1844 [incl. Ciocotalpa Saylor 1940]RJS02
    |             |    |--C. consobrinaRJS02
    |             |    `--C. subcribrataRJS02
    |             |--Pseudocotalpa Hardy 1971RJS02
    |             |    |--P. andrewsiRJS02
    |             |    |--P. giulianiiRJS02
    |             |    `--P. sonoricaRJS02
    |             |--Paracotalpa Ohaus 1915 [incl. Pocalta Casey 1915]RJS02
    |             |    |--P. desertaRJS02
    |             |    |--P. granicollisRJS02
    |             |    |--P. puncticollisC90
    |             |    `--P. ursinaRJS02
    |             |--Pelidnota MacLeay 1819 [incl. Aglycoptera Sharp 1885, Pelidnotidia Casey 1915]RJS02
    |             |    |  i. s.: P. cyanitarsisL90
    |             |    |         P. lacerdaeL90
    |             |    |         P. punctataT90
    |             |    `--P. (Pelidnota)F55
    |             |         |--P. (P.) punctulata Bates 1888F55
    |             |         `--P. (P.) strigosa Laporte 1840F55
    |             |--Parastasia Westwood 1842MF15, RJS02 (see below for synonymy)
    |             |    |--*P. canaliculata Westwood 1841CW92
    |             |    |--P. bimaculataB28
    |             |    |--P. brevicollisMF15
    |             |    |--P. brevipes [incl. P. conicicollis]RJS02
    |             |    `--P. montrouzieri Fairmaire 1883CW92
    |             |         |--P. m. montrouzieriCW92
    |             |         `--P. m. australis Ohaus 1901CW92
    |             `--Rutela Latreille 1802 [incl. Diabasis Hoffmansegg 1817]RJS02
    |                  |--R. chrysisG20
    |                  |--R. formosaRJS02
    |                  |--R. lineola Linné 1758FS90 (see below for synonymy)
    |                  |--R. olivacea [=Cetonia olivacea]L02
    |                  |--R. punctata [=Melolontha punctata]L02
    |                  |--R. striata Ol. 1789 [incl. R. guadeloupensis, R. lineaticollis, R. marginicollis]FS90
    |                  `--R. surinamensis [=Cetonia surinamensis]L02
    `--AnoplognathiniMF15
         |  i. s.: Amblochilus Blanchard 1851CW92
         |           `--*A. bicolor Blanchard 1851CW92
         |         Amblyterus Macleay 1819CW92
         |           |--A. cicatricosus (Gyllenhal in Schönherr 1817) (see below for synonymy)CW92
         |           |--A. bundabergensis Carne 1958CW92
         |           |--A. clypealis Ohaus 1904CW92
         |           |--A. deuqueti Carne 1958CW92
         |           |--A. paradoxus Carne 1975CW92
         |           |--A. simplicitarsus Carne 1958CW92
         |           |--A. tarsalis Lea 1920CW92
         |           `--A. tibialis Carne 1958CW92
         |         Anoplostethus Brullé 1837 [=Anoplosternus Guérin-Méneville 1838; incl. Panschizus Blackburn 1888]CW92
         |           |--*A. opalinus Brullé 1837 [=*Anoplosternus opalinus; incl. *Panschizus pallidus Blackburn 1888]CW92
         |           |--A. laetus Rothschild & Jordan 1894 [incl. A. laetus nobilis Benderitter 1924]CW92
         |           `--A. roseus Blanchard 1851 [=A. opalinus Blanchard 1846 non Brullé 1837]CW92
         |         Bilobatus Machatschke 1970 [=Homotropus Waterhouse 1878 non Foerster 1869]CW92
         |           |--*B. luridipennis (Waterhouse 1878) [=*Homotropus luridipennis]CW92
         |           `--B. testaceipennis (Ohaus 1901) [=Homotropus testaceipennis]CW92
         |         Calloodes White 1845CW92
         |           |--*C. grayianus (White 1845) [=Anoplognathus (*Calloodes) grayianus]CW92
         |           |--C. aeneus Waterh. 1868M86
         |           |--C. atkinsoni Waterhouse 1868B14
         |           |--C. nitidissimus Lea 1919 [incl. C. frenchi Ohaus 1912 non Blackburn 1890]CW92
         |           `--C. rayneri Macleay 1864CW92
         |         Clilopocha Lea 1914 [incl. Dynastomorphus Carne 1954]CW92
         |           |--*C. whiteae Lea 1914CW92
         |           |--C. angularis (Carne 1954) [=Dynastomorphus angularis]CW92
         |           |--C. mandibularis (Carne 1954) [=Dynastomorphus mandibularis]CW92
         |           |--C. pachypus (Lea 1917) [=Aneurystypus pachypus, *Dynastomorphus pachypus]CW92
         |           `--C. pilosicollis (Lea 1917) [=Aneurystypus pilosicollis]CW92
         |         Dungoorus Carne 1958CW92
         |           `--*D. murrumbullus Carne 1958CW92
         |         Eosaulostomus Carne 1956CW92
         |           |--*E. excisus Carne 1956CW92
         |           |--E. collaris (Blackburn 1892)CW92 [=Aneurystypus collarisCW92, Saulostomus collarisL19]
         |           |--E. halei Carne 1956CW92
         |           |--E. mimicus (Lea 1919) [=Saulostomus mimicus]CW92
         |           |--E. norsemanae Carne 1956CW92
         |           `--E. weiskei (Ohaus 1904) [=Saulostomus weiskei]CW92
         |         Epichrysus White 1841CW92
         |           `--*E. lamprimoides (White 1841) [=Brachysternus (*Epichrysus) lamprimoides]CW92
         |         Exochogenys Carne 1958CW92
         |           `--*E. nigripennis (Blanchard 1851) [=Schizognathus nigripennis]CW92
         |         Mesystoechus Waterhouse 1878CW92
         |           |--*M. ciliatus Waterhouse 1878CW92
         |           `--M. costatus Carne 1958CW92
         |         Mimadoretus Arrow 1901 [=Popillia Macleay 1887 non Dejean 1821]CW92
         |           |--*M. flavomaculatus (Macleay 1887) [=*Popillia flavomaculata]CW92
         |           |--M. leucothyreus Lea 1919CW92
         |           `--M. niveosquamosus Lea 1919CW92
         |         Pseudoschizognathus Ohaus 1904CW92
         |           |--*P. schonfeldti Ohaus 1904 [incl. P. occidentalis Ohaus 1913]CW92
         |           |--P. lajoyi Ohaus 1913CW92
         |           `--P. variicollis Ohaus 1904CW92
         |         Repsimus Macleay 1819CW92
         |           |--R. manicatus (Swartz 1817)CW92 [=Rutela manicataCW92; incl. Re. femoratusB35]
         |           |    |--R. m. manicatus (see below for synonymy)CW92
         |           |    `--R. m. montanus Lea 1919CW92
         |           `--R. aeneus (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy)CW92
         |         Saulostomus Waterhouse 1878CW92
         |           |--*S. villosus Waterhouse 1878CW92
         |           |--S. brunneoviridis Lea 1920CW92
         |           |--S. felschei Ohaus 1904CW92
         |           |--S. monteithi Carne 1985CW92
         |           `--S. striatus Ohaus 1935CW92
         |         Trioplognathus Ohaus 1904CW92
         |           `--*T. griseopilosus (Ohaus 1901) [=Anoplognathus griseopilosus; incl. A. antiquus Arrow 1919]CW92
         |         Wambo Allsopp 1988CW92
         |           `--*W. puticosus Allsopp 1988CW92
         |         AnoplognathinaCW92
         |         Schizognathus Fischer 1823 [Schizognathina]CW92
         |           |--*S. macleayi Fischer 1823CW92
         |           |--S. apricagger Allsopp 1989CW92
         |           |--S. burmeisteri Ohaus 1904CW92
         |           |--S. compressicornis Ohaus 1898CW92
         |           |--S. lucidus Ohaus 1904CW92
         |           |--S. mesosternalis Ohaus 1912CW92
         |           |--S. rugulosus Carne 1958CW92
         |           `--S. viridiaeneus Ohaus 1904CW92
         |--Phalangogonia Burmeister 1844MF15, F55
         |    |--P. obesaF55
         |    |--P. parilisF55
         |    |--P. punctata Franz 1955F55
         |    `--P. sperataMF15
         `--+--Platycoelia humeralisMF15
            `--+--Oryctomorphus bimaculatusMF15
               `--Spodochlamys [Anatistini, Spodochlamyini]MF15
                    `--S. cupreolaMF15

Rutelinae incertae sedis:
  ParisoleaF55
  Elcarmeniella Franz 1955F55
    `--*E. striata Franz 1955F55
  Leucothyreus MacLeay 1819F55
    |--L. femoratus Burmeister 1844F55
    `--L. guadalupiensis Burm. 1844FS90
  KibakoganeaB14
    |--K. dohertyiB14
    |--K. sexmaculata (Kraatz 1900)B14
    `--K. sinicaB14
  MasumotokoganeaB14
  PukupukuB14
  CeroplophanaB14
  DicaulocephalusB14
  DidrepanephorusB14
  Mimela Kirby 1823CW92
    |--M. chinensisB66
    |--M. chryseis Bates 1866B66
    |--M. ignicauda Bates 1866B66
    |--M. simplex Bates 1866B66
    `--M. splendensB66
  TrigonochilusA01
    |--T. coriaceusA01
    `--T. politus Arrow 1901A01
  GeniatiniRJS02
  AdoretusA06
  AnisopliaA06
    |--A. agricolaR26
    |--A. arvicolaR26
    |--A. austriacaB28
    |--A. fruticolaR26
    |--A. (Chaetopteroplia) segetum Herbst 1783A06
    `--A. villosaC01

Amblyterus cicatricosus (Gyllenhal in Schönherr 1817) [=Melolontha cicatricosa; incl. *A. geminatus Macleay 1819]CW92

Parastasia Westwood 1842MF15, RJS02 [incl. Barymorpha Guérin-Méneville 1843RJS02, Echmatophorus Waterhouse 1895RJS02, Ohkubous Sawada 1938RJS02, Polymoechus LeConte 1856RJS02, Urleta Westwood 1875RJS02]

Repsimus aeneus (Fabricius 1775) [=Melolontha aenea; incl. Scarabaeus aeratus Linnaeus 1790, Repsimus purpureipes Macleay 1871]CW92

Repsimus manicatus manicatus (Swartz 1817) [incl. Rutela bracteata Drapeiz 1819, Anoplognathus brownii Macleay 1819, *Repsimus brownii, A. dytiscoides Macleay 1819]CW92

Rutela lineola Linné 1758FS90 [=Cetonia lineolaL02; incl. R. lineola var. surinama Linné 1758FS90, R. unungulaFS90]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A06] Ahrens, D. 2006. The phylogeny of Sericini and their position within the Scarabaeidae based on morphological characters (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Systematic Entomology 31: 113–144.

[AJ30] Allen, H. W., & H. A. Jaynes. 1930. Contribution to the taxonomy of Asiatic wasps of the genus Tiphia (Scoliidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 76 (17): 1–105.

[A01] Arrow, G. J. 1901. Remarks on secondary sexual differences in rutelid Coleoptera, with descriptions of some new forms. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 393–401.

[B66] Bates, H. W. 1866. On a collection of Coleoptera from Formosa sent home by R. Swinhoe, Esq., H. B. M. Consul, Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 339–355.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Rutelinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 359–382. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[F55] Franz, E. 1955. Scarabaeidae Rutelinae (Ins. Col.) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 201–207.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H-O10] Hernández-Ortiz, V. 2010. Pyrgotidae (pyrgotid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 955–961. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[L90] Léveillé, A. 1890. L’entomologie à l’exposition universelle de 1889. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 341–350.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[MF15] McKenna, D. D., B. D. Farrell, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, D. R. Maddison, A. E. Seago, A. E. Z. Short, A. F. Newton & M. K. Thayer. 2015. Phylogeny and evolution of Staphyliniformia and Scarabaeiformia: forest litter as a stepping stone for diversification of nonphytophagous beetles. Systematic Entomology 40: 35–60.

[RJS02] Ratcliffe, B. C., M. L. Jameson & A. B. T. Smith. 2002. Scarabaeidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 39–81. CRC Press.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[T90] Tashiro, H. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Scarabaeidae larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1191–1209. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

 

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