Portuguese fire salamander Salamandra salamandra gallaica, copyright John P. Clare.

Belongs within: Diadectosalamandroidei.
Contains: Pleurodelinae.

The Salamandridae are Holarctic salamanders that are mostly periodically or completely aquatic (Frost et al. 2006).

Characters (from Frost et al. 2006): Typically with strongly keratinized skin in adults; frontosquamosal arch present; premaxillaries often fused; periotic connective tissue present; periotic cistern small; vomerine dentition medially replaced.

Salamandridae [Salamandrae]
|--Salamandrina Fitzinger 1826FG06 [SalamandrininaePW11]
| |--S. perspicillataPW11
| `--S. terdigitataPW11
|--+--Chioglossa Bocage 1864FG06
| | `--C. lusitanica Bocage 1864War08
| `--Mertensiella Wolterstorff 1925FG06
| `--M. caucasicaPW11
`--+--Lyciasalamandra Veith & Steinfartz 2004FG06
| |--L. luschani (Steindachner 1891)PW11, War08 [=Mertensiella luschaniWar08, Salamandra luschaniFG06]
| `--+--L. fazilaePW11
| |--L. helverseniPW11
| `--+--L. flavimembrisPW11
| `--+--L. atifiPW11
| `--+--L. antalyanaPW11
| `--L. billaePW11
`--Salamandra Laurenti 1768FG06
| i. s.: S. alleganiensis [=Triton alleganiensis; incl. S. gigantea]J23
| S. cinereaJ23
| S. japonica [=Lacerta japonica]B00
| S. longicaudaJ23
| S. maculosaD56
| S. palustris [incl. Lacerta cristata]B00
| S. quadrilineata [=Lacerta quadrilineata]B00
| S. rubraJ23
| S. subviolaceaJ23
| S. terdigitata Lacépède 1788War08
| S vulgaris [=Lacerta vulgaris]B00
|--+--S. atra Laurenti 1768PW11, War08
| | |--S. a. atraWar08
| | `--S. a. prenjensis Miksic 1969War08
| `--+--S. corsicaPW11
| `--S. lanzai (Nascetti et al. 1988)PW11, War08
`--+--S. infraimmaculata (Martens 1885)PW11, War08 [=S. salamandra infraimmaculataWar08]
`--+--S. algiraPW11
`--S. salamandra (Linnaeus 1758)PW11, War08 [=Lacerta salamandraK08]
|--S. s. salamandraWar08
|--S. s. gallaica Malkmus 1983War08
`--S. s. terrestris Lacépède 1788War08

Salamandridae incertae sedis:
‘Triton’ Laurenti 1768 non Linnaeus 1758FG06
|--T. lateralis Say in James 1823J23
`--T. palustrisG42
Molge Merrem 1820 [Molgidae]FG06
|--M. alpestrisW06
|--M. cristataWai08
|--M. palmataW06
|--M. pyrrhogastraWai08
|--M. torosus [=Dicmyctylus torosus]W06
|--M. viridescens [=Dicmyctylus viridescens]W06
`--M. vulgarisF09
Seiranota Barnes 1826 [Seiranotina]FG06
Bradybates Tschudi 1838 [Bradybatina]FG06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Brongniart, A. 1800. Essai d’une classification naturelle des reptiles. IIe partie. Formation et disposition des genres. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (36): 89–91.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[F09] Finckh. 1909. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 798.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[G42] Gulliver, G. 1842. Observations on the muscular fibres of the oesophagus and heart in some of the vertebrate animals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 63–72.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[K08] Korsós, Z. 2008. History of the Herpetological Collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 37–93.

[M00] Milner, A. R. 2000. Mesozoic and Tertiary Caudata and Albanerpetontidae. In: Heatwole, H., & R. L. Carroll (eds) Amphibian Biology vol. 4. Palaeontology. The evolutionary history of amphibians pp. 1412–1444. Surrey Beatty & Sons.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

[Wai08] Waite, E. R. 1908. Note on the breeding habits of the red bellied newt (Molge pyrrhogastra Boie). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 66–67.

[War08] Warburg, M. R. 2008. Temporal variations in body dimensions followed for 25 years in a breeding population of adult salamanders, with a partial review on other Urodela (Amphibia, Urodela, Salamandridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 81–101.

[W06] Werner, F. 1906. Die nördlichsten Reptilien und Batrachier. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 527–544. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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