Governor’s plum Flacourtia indica, copyright Dinesh Valke.

Belongs within: Violineae.
Contains: Populus, Salix.

The Salicaceae as used in recent references combines the restricted Salicaceae of older authorities (Salix, willows, and Populus, poplars) with the paraphyletic ‘Flacourtiaceae’. Though the wind-pollinated, northern temperate Salicaceae sensu stricto are distinct from other, mostly tropical, members of the family, phylogenetic analyses have nested them deep within the ‘Flacourtiaceae’, and the name Salicaceae takes precedence for a combined family. Salicaceae are united by leaves with a ‘salicoid tooth’, an apical tooth with a small vein entering and expanding within the tooth, and a terminal gland or stout hair (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Species of Salicaceae used as commercial sources for wood include poplars and malas, Homalium foetida, of south-east Asia and New Guinea. Homalium is a pantropical genus of trees and shrubs characterised by flowers with a calyx tube bearing free sepal lobes and petals spreading from the rim. The calyx tube is absent in the genus Scolopia whose flowers bear similar petals and sepals, and which often bear spines on the trunk and branches. The Old World tropical genus Flacourtia includes trees and shrubs that may be grown for their edible fruits such as the governor’s plum F. indica and the Indian coffee plum F. jangomas. The wonder tree Idesia polycarpa is a native of eastern Asia bearing large, heart-shaped leaves that also produces edible berries.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Evergreen (occasionally deciduous) trees; cocarcinogen, tanniniferous; vessel elements with simple or scalariform perforation plates; petiole bundle arcuate or annular with flange bundles; leaves spiral or two-ranked, occasionally opposite, supervolute-curved or involute, teeth salicoid [with small vein proceeding into tooth and expanding, apex of tooth a spherical gland or stout hair]; inflorescence various; flowers 3-6-merous, calyx with (0-)3-8(-15) sepals, often valvate (occasionally connate), corolla absent or with same number of petals as sepals (rarely with more petals than sepals), disc often with glands or lobes; anthers 1 to many, centrifugal (occasionally simultaneous) initiation; styles separate or fused; ovules straight (occasionally anatropous), micropyle bistomal/zig-zag (occasionally exostomal or endostomal), embryo sac elongated, more or less protruding into the micropyle; fruit a berry or drupe; seeds arillate or with hairs of arillate origin; testa also multiplicative and more or less fleshy.

<==Salicaceae [Flacourtiaceae]
    |  `--+--Idesia polycarpaXR12, LO98
    |     `--+--PopulusXR12
    |        `--SalixXR12
            |  `--+--ProckiaXR12
            |     `--BanaraDL07
            |          |--B. splendens [incl. B. hotteana]J87
            |          `--B. vanderbiltiiW92
            `--+--Dovyalis caffraXR12, H90
                    |--F. indicaB00
                    |--F. inermisB00
                    |--F. jangomasB00
                    |--F. rukamB00
                    `--F. territorialisB00
Salicaceae incertae sedis:
  ScolopiaB00 [ScolopieaeT00]
    |--S. braunii [incl. S. brownii]H90
    |--S. burmanica Mukherjee 1972M72
    |--S. crenataM72
    |    |--S. c. var. crenataM72
    |    `--S. c. var. brevifolia Mukherjee 1972M72
    |--S. kermodeiM72
    |--S. rhinantheraH03
    `--S. spinosaM72
  HomaliumB00 [HomalieaeT00]
    |--H. alnifoliumB00
    |--H. bhamoenseM72
    |--H. brachybotrysB00
    |--H. ciliatum Mukherjee 1972M72
    |--H. circumpinnatumB00
    |--H. foetidaK03
    `--H. racemosumSWK87
  Bennettia trinervia [=Terminalia trinervia]C78
  Gynocardia odorataDD73
    |--A. lanceolataD03
    `--A. microphyllaH59
  Pseudosalix handleyiXR12
    |--X. flexuosaRC02
    |--X. ovatumB00
    `--X. terraereginaeB00
  Aphloioxylon Mathiesen 1937CBH93
  Credneria integerrina Zenker 1833CBH93
  Dryoxylon jenense Schleiden 1853CBH93
  Streptothamnus mooreiH90
  Pseudoscolopia Gilg 1917G17
    `--*P. polyantha Gilg 1917G17

*Type species of generic name indicated


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