Salicaceae

Governor’s plum Flacourtia indica, copyright Dinesh Valke.

Belongs within: Violineae.
Contains: Populus, Salix.

The Salicaceae as used in recent references combines the restricted Salicaceae of older authorities (Salix, willows, and Populus, poplars) with the paraphyletic ‘Flacourtiaceae’. Though the wind-pollinated, northern temperate Salicaceae sensu stricto are distinct from other, mostly tropical, members of the family, phylogenetic analyses have nested them deep within the ‘Flacourtiaceae’, and the name Salicaceae takes precedence for a combined family. Salicaceae are united by leaves with a ‘salicoid tooth’, an apical tooth with a small vein entering and expanding within the tooth, and a terminal gland or stout hair (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Species of Salicaceae used as commercial sources for wood include poplars and malas, Homalium foetida, of south-east Asia and New Guinea. Homalium is a pantropical genus of trees and shrubs characterised by flowers with a calyx tube bearing free sepal lobes and petals spreading from the rim. The calyx tube is absent in the genus Scolopia whose flowers bear similar petals and sepals, and which often bear spines on the trunk and branches. The Old World tropical genus Flacourtia includes trees and shrubs that may be grown for their edible fruits such as the governor’s plum F. indica and the Indian coffee plum F. jangomas. The wonder tree Idesia polycarpa is a native of eastern Asia bearing large, heart-shaped leaves that also produces edible berries.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Evergreen (occasionally deciduous) trees; cocarcinogen, tanniniferous; vessel elements with simple or scalariform perforation plates; petiole bundle arcuate or annular with flange bundles; leaves spiral or two-ranked, occasionally opposite, supervolute-curved or involute, teeth salicoid [with small vein proceeding into tooth and expanding, apex of tooth a spherical gland or stout hair]; inflorescence various; flowers 3-6-merous, calyx with (0-)3-8(-15) sepals, often valvate (occasionally connate), corolla absent or with same number of petals as sepals (rarely with more petals than sepals), disc often with glands or lobes; anthers 1 to many, centrifugal (occasionally simultaneous) initiation; styles separate or fused; ovules straight (occasionally anatropous), micropyle bistomal/zig-zag (occasionally exostomal or endostomal), embryo sac elongated, more or less protruding into the micropyle; fruit a berry or drupe; seeds arillate or with hairs of arillate origin; testa also multiplicative and more or less fleshy.

<==Salicaceae [Flacourtiaceae]
    |--+--PoliothyrsisXR12
    |  `--+--Idesia polycarpaXR12, LO98
    |     `--+--PopulusXR12
    |        `--SalixXR12
    `--+--HasseltiaDL07
       `--FlacourtioideaeT00
            |--+--AbatiaXR12
            |  `--+--ProckiaXR12
            |     `--BanaraDL07
            |          |--B. splendens [incl. B. hotteana]J87
            |          `--B. vanderbiltiiW92
            `--+--Dovyalis caffraXR12, H90
               `--FlacourtiaXR12
                    |--F. indicaB00
                    |--F. inermisB00
                    |--F. jangomasB00
                    |--F. rukamB00
                    `--F. territorialisB00
Salicaceae incertae sedis:
  ScolopiaB00 [ScolopieaeT00]
    |--S. braunii [incl. S. brownii]H90
    |--S. burmanica Mukherjee 1972M72
    |--S. crenataM72
    |    |--S. c. var. crenataM72
    |    `--S. c. var. brevifolia Mukherjee 1972M72
    |--S. kermodeiM72
    |--S. rhinantheraH03
    `--S. spinosaM72
  ScaphocalyxH03
  HomaliumB00 [HomalieaeT00]
    |--H. alnifoliumB00
    |--H. bhamoenseM72
    |--H. brachybotrysB00
    |--H. ciliatum Mukherjee 1972M72
    |--H. circumpinnatumB00
    |--H. foetidaK03
    `--H. racemosumSWK87
  BembicieaeT00
  NeopringleaT00
  OncobaT00
  GrandidieraYY22
  CalencobYY22
  LindackeriaYY22
  MicrosemmaYY22
  Bennettia trinervia [=Terminalia trinervia]C78
  BuchnerodendronYY22
  GertrudiaYY22
  Gynocardia odorataDD73
  ItoaYY22
  RyparosaYY22
  SolmsiaYY22
  TrichostephanusYY22
  AzaraYY22
    |--A. lanceolataD03
    `--A. microphyllaH59
  DasylepisYY22
  PatrisiaYY22
  PhyllobotryumYY22
  ProckiopsisYY22
  RawsoniaYY22
  TetrathylaciumYY22
  CamptostylusYY22
  MaynaYY22
  OphiobotrysYY22
  Pseudosalix handleyiXR12
  XylosmaB00
    |--X. flexuosaRC02
    |--X. ovatumB00
    `--X. terraereginaeB00
  Aphloioxylon Mathiesen 1937CBH93
  Credneria integerrina Zenker 1833CBH93
  Dryoxylon jenense Schleiden 1853CBH93
  Streptothamnus mooreiH90
  SaliciphyllumP92
  Pseudoscolopia Gilg 1917G17
    `--*P. polyantha Gilg 1917G17

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C78] Coode, M. J. E. 1978. Combretaceae. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 43–110. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G17] Gilg, E. 1917. Pseudoscolopia Gilg, nov. genus Flacourtiacearum. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54: 343.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113–118.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[M72] Mukherjee, N. 1972. Six new taxa of Flacourtiaceae from India and Burma. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 390–394.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RC02] Riley, E. G., S. M. Clark, R. W. Flowers & A. J. Gilbert. 2002. Chrysomelidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 617–691. CRC Press.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *