Salpingidae

Pytho kolwensis, copyright Deryni.

Belongs within: Tenebrionoidea.

The Salpingidae are a group of elongate, more or less flattened beetles that are usually found among vegetation, and whose larvae feed on bark or phloem under bark or in dead twigs (Lawrence & Britton 1991). Molecular phylogenetic analysis (McKenna et al. 2015) suggests that the Salpingidae are paraphyletic to the similar family Pythidae, distinguished by its projecting fore coxae and laterally open mid coxae (vs transverse or globular fore coxae and closed mid coxae in Salpingidae).

Both Salpingidae and Pythidae are divided between multiple subfamilies, some of which have historically been treated as distinct families. The Dacoderinae, which may be associated with ants, are distinguished by the presence of a pair of deep, laterally open pits on the pronotum, produced and shelf-like eyes, and moniliform antennae that appear ten-segmented. The Inopeplinae have very flat bodies with shortened elytra exposing most of the abdomen, a posteriorly narrowed pronotum, and filiform antennae. Aglenus brunneus is a small North American cave-dwelling species that lacks eyes (Pollock 2002b).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Elongate, slightly to strongly flattened, usually subglabrous or clothed with scattered setae. Head prognathous, sometimes produced and rostrate, never abruptly narrowed behind eyes; antenna 10- or 11-segmented, filiform, moniliform or with three-segmented club; lateral pronotal carinae complete, incomplete or occasionally absent, simple, undulate or dentate; fore coxae transverse or globular, trochantin concealed, fore coxal cavities externally open or closed, internally closed; mid coxal cavities contiguous or separated, mid coxal cavities laterally closed; tarsi almost always simple, tarsal formula 5-5-4 or (rarely) 4-4-4; abdomen with five ventrites, no or two ventrites connate. Larvae elongate, parallel-sided, slightly to strongly flattened, moderately to lightly pigmented except for head and abdominal apex. Epicranial stem absent; frontal arms with relatively narrow angle between them, usually with paired endocarinae beneath them; hypostomal rods moderately to very long and subparallel; S9 with 1 to several teeth on each side at base (sometimes forming basal row interrupted at middle); armature on T9 usually complex, with accessory processes on urogomphi and/or additional spines or processes in front of or between them.

<==Salpingidae [Aegialitidae, Elacatidae, Eurystethidae, Inopeplidae, Othniidae, Tretothoracidae]
|--Elacatis Pascoe 1860P02b [incl. Othnius LeConte 1861P02b; OthniinaeMW15]
| |--E. delusaLB91 [=Othnius delusaB70]
| `--E. umbrosusP02b
`--+--PythidaeMW15
| |--IschyomiusMW15
| |--OsphyoplesiusP02a
| |--Priognathus LeConte 1850P02a
| | `--P. monilicornis (Randall 1838)P02a
| |--Anaplopus [Anaplopinae]LB91
| | `--A. tuberculatusLB91
| |--Trimitomerus Horn 1888P02a
| | `--T. riversii Horn 1888P02a
| |--Sphalma Horn 1888P02a
| | `--S. quadricollis Horn 1888P02a
| `--Pytho Latreille 1796 [Pythinae]P02a
| |--P. caeruleus [incl. P. depressus]LC40
| |--P. kolwensis Sahlberg 1833B14
| |--P. nigerP02a
| |--P. nivalisB14
| `--P. strictusB14
`--Salpinginae [Lissodemini, Salpingini]MW15
| i. s.: Neosalpingus hybridusLB91
| OrphanotrophiumLB91
| Lissodema hybridum Erichs. 1842LB91, M86
| PlatysalpingusLB91
| Rhinosimus Latreille 1805P02b
| |--R. aeneus Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| |--R. planirostrisLC40 [=Anthribus planirostrisL02; incl. R. fulvirostrisLC40]
| |--R. roborisLC40 [=Bruchus (Rhinosimus) roborisLC40]
| |--R. ruficollisLC40
| `--R. viridiaeneusP02b
| Sphaeriestes Stephens 1831P02b
| |--S. mutilatusLB91
| `--S. virescensP02b
| Vincenzellus Reitter 1911P02b
| `--V. elongatus Mannerheimn 1852P02b
|--NotosalpingusMW15
`--+--Salpingus Gyllenhal 1810MW15, P02b
| |--S. aterLC40
| |--S. quadriguttatusLC40
| `--S. viridiaeneusMW15
`--InopeplinaeMW15
|--Euryplatus Motschulsky 1860MW15, P02b
| `--E. dimiolatusMW15
`--Inopeplus Smith 1851 (see below for synonymy)P02b
|--I. bifossulatusG89
|--I. dimidiatusLB91
|--I. olliffi v. d. Poll 1887M96
|--I. piceusG89
`--I. praeustus Chv. 1858FS90

Salpingidae incertae sedis:
Aglenus Erichson 1845 [Agleninae]P02b
`--A. brunneus (Gyllenhal 1808)P02b
Dacoderinae [Dacoderidae]B14
|--Tretothorax cleistostoma Lea 1910B14
|--Dacoderus LeConte 1858P02b
`--MyrmecoderusB14
Aegialitinae [Eurystethinae]B14
|--AntarcticodomusB14
`--Aegialites Mannerheim 1852 [incl. Eurystethes Seidlitz 1916]P02b
|--A. californicusP02b
`--A. canadensis Zerche 2004B14
SerrotibiaRS15

Inopeplus Smith 1851 [incl. Eleusinus Blackwelder 1943, Ino Laporte 1834 non Schrank 1803, Pseudino Fairmaire 1869]P02b

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G89] Grouvelle, A. 1889. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887–Avril 1888). Coléoptéres, 2e mémoire. Cucujidae, Rhysodidae, Dryopidae, Cyathoceridae, Heteroceridae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 157–166, pl. 6.

[LC40] Laporte de Castelnau, F. 1840. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Coléoptères vol. 2. P. Duménil: Paris.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

[M96] Masters, G. 1896. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Supplement, part II. Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophyllidae, Staphylinidae, Pselaphidae, Paussidae, Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Phalacridae, Nitidulidae, Trogositidae, Colydiidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, Lathridiidae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae, Byrrhidae, Parnidae, Heteroceridae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (Suppl.): 695–754.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[P02a] Pollock, D. A. 2002a. Pythidae Solier 1834. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 537–539. CRC Press.

[P02b] Pollock, D. A. 2002b. Salpingidae Leach 1815. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 544–548. CRC Press.

[RS15] Robertson, J. A., A. Ślipiński, M. Moulton, F. W. Shockley, A. Giorgi, N. P. Lord, D. D. McKenna, W. Tomaszewska, J. Forrester, K. B. Miller, M. F. Whiting & J. V. McHugh. 2015. Phylogeny and classification of Cucujoidea and the recognition of a new superfamily Coccinelloidea (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia). Systematic Entomology 40: 745–778.

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