Santalaceae

Sandalwood Santalum lanceolatum, from here.

Belongs within: Santalales.
Contains: Korthalsella, Viscum, Phoradendron, Arceuthobium, Exocarpos, Leptomeria.

The Santalaceae are a cosmopolitan group of semi-parasitic or parasitic flowering plants. The ancestral habit of the family is as terrestrially growing root semi-parasites but aerial stem parastism has evolved within the Santalaceae on more than one occasion. Some members of the family such as Indian sandalwood Santalum album are valued for their highly aromatic wood, which has unfortunately lead to some species becoming endangered.

The ovary is superior in the tribe Anthoboleae but inferior in other Santalaceae. Members of the sub-cosmopolitan genus Thesium are slender herbs or small shrubs with the inflorescence reduced to a single flower (Hewson & George 1984).

Characters (from Allan 1961): Trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes parasitic, with usually opposite, entire, exstipulate, sometimes scale-like leaves. Inflorescence various, often of racemes or spikes; flowers minute, regular, perfect to unisexual. Perianth of one series of four or five sepaloid or petaloid valvate tepals; stamens opposite tepals; filaments short, anthers 2-celled, basifixed on short filaments. Ovary inferior, embedded in receptacle, or superior, 1-loculed; carpels (2)–3–5; ovules usually 3, pendulous on basal placentae; stigma capitate to 3–5-lobed. Fruit nut-like to drupaceous; seed without testa, embryo straight, endosperm fleshy.

<==Santalaceae [Amphorogynaceae, Cervantesiaceae, Comandraceae, Nanodeaceae, Thesiaceae, Viscaceae, Viscoideae]APG16
|--AnthoboleaeHG84
| |--ExocarposHG84
| |--Omphacomeria (Endl.) DC. 1857 [=Leptomeria sect. Omphacomeria Endl. 1837]HG84
| | `--*O. acerba (Br.) DC. 1857 [=Leptomeria acerba Br. 1810, O. acerba var. typica Domin 1921 (nom. illeg.)]HG84
| `--Anthobolus Br. 1810HG84
| |--*A. filifolius Br. 1810 [incl. A. triqueter Br. 1810]HG84
| |--A. foveolatus Muell. 1859 [incl. A. brevifolius Gaudich. ex Chatin 1862]HG84
| `--A. leptomerioides Muell. 1858 [=A. leptomeroides]HG84
|--Thesium L. 1753 [Thesieae]HG84
| |--*T. alpinum L. 1753HG84
| |--T. australe Br. 1810HG84
| |--T. bergeri Zuccarini 1837PL04
| |--T. emodiO88
| |--T. himalenseO88
| |--T. kernerianumH09
| |--T. linophyllon [incl. T. divaricatum]H91
| `--T. xerophyticumCV06
|--Santaleae [Osyrideae]HG84
| |--OsyrisHG84
| | |--O. albaR-RR-GM-S98
| | `--O. wightianaSS72
| `--Santalum L. 1753 [incl. Eucarya Mitchell 1839, Fusanus L. 1774, Santalum sect. Fusanus (L.) Muell. 1855]HG84
| |--*S. album L. 1753 [incl. S. ovatum Br. 1810]HG84
| |--S. acuminatum (Br.) DC. 1857 (see below for synonymy)HG84
| |--*Fusanus’ compressus L. 1774HG84
| |--S. fernandezianumD81
| |--S. lanceolatum Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy)HG84
| |--S. murrayanum (Mitchell) Gardn. 1930 (see below for synonymy)HG84
| |--S. obtusifolium Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy)HG84
| `--S. spicatum (Br.) DC. 1857 (see below for synonymy)HG84
`--AmphorogyneaeHG84
|--AmphorogyneHG84
|--LeptomeriaHG84
|--Dendromyza Danser 1940HG84
| `--*D. reinwardtiana (Blume ex Korth.) Danser 1940 [=Tupeia reinwardtiana Blume ex Korth. 1839]HG84
|--Spirogardnera Stauffer 1968HG84
| `--*S. rubescens Stauffer 1968HG84
|--Dendrotrophe Miq. 1856 [=Heslowia Blume 1850 non Wallich 1831]HG84
| |--*D. umbellata (Blume) Miq. 1856 [=*Henslowia umbellata (Blume) Blume 1850]HG84
| `--D. varians (Blume) Miq. 1856 [=Henslowia varians Blume 1850; incl. H. queenslandiae Smith 1951]HG84
`--Choretrum Br. 1810HG84
|--*C. glomeratum Br. 1810HG84
| |--C. g. var. glomeratumHG84
| `--C. g. var. chrysanthum (Muell.) Benth. 1873 [=C. chrysanthum Muell. 1855]HG84
|--C. candollei Muell. ex Benth. 1873HG84
|--C. lateriflorum Br. 1810 [incl. C. pendulum Tovey & Morris 1922]HG84
|--C. pauciflorum DC. 1857HG84
|--C. pritzelii Diels 1903HG84
`--C. spicatum Mell. 1858HG84

Santalaceae incertae sedis:
OkoubakaT00
PhacellariaYY22
Buckleya lanceolataLO98
Pyrularia puberaYY22, EBS98
CampereiaYY22
ColpoonYY22
NanodeaYY22
ScleromelumYY22
SclerophyronYY22
Jordina rhombifoliaMF05
QuinchamaliumNDA05
Thesianthium inclusum Conwentz 1886CBH93
Santalumidtes cainozoicusCBH93
Viscoxylon haustoria Selmeier 1975CBH93
Notothixos Oliver 1863B84
|--*N. subaureus Oliver 1863 (see below for synonymy)B84
|--N. cornifolius Oliver 1863 (see below for synonymy)B84
|--N. incanus (Hook.) Oliver 1863 [=Viscum incanum Hook. 1837]B84
`--N. leiophyllus Schumann in Schumann & Lauterb. 1905B84
Mida Cunningham ex Engl. 1837A61
`--M. salicifolia Cunningham 1838 (see below for synonymy)A61
|--M. s. var. salicifoliaA61
`--M. s. var. myrtifolia (Cunningham) Allan 1961 [=M. myrtifolia Cunningham 1838]A61
GinalloaH03
|--G. arnottianaH03
|--G. flagellarisH03
`--G. nudaH03
Comandra umbellataH93
|--C. u. ssp. umbellataH93
|--C. u. ssp. californicaH93
`--C. u. ssp. pallidaH93
DendrophthoraJ87
|--D. brachystachaJ87
|--D. carnosaJ87
|--D. cupressoidesJ87
|--D. serpyllifoliaJ87
`--D. versicolorJ87
KorthalsellaA61
ViscumCD07
PhoradendronJ87
ArceuthobiumNDA05

Mida salicifolia Cunningham 1838 [incl. Santalum cunninghamii Hooker 1854, M. cunninghamii (Hooker) Chatin 1891, Fusanus cunninghamii Benth. & Hooker ex Kirk 1889, M. eucalyptoides Cunningham 1838, Santalum mida Hook. 1843]A61

Notothixos cornifolius Oliver 1863 [=N. incanus var. cornifolius (Oliver) Maiden & Betche 1916; incl. N. cornifolius var. angustifolius Oliver 1863]B84

*Notothixos subaureus Oliver 1863 [=N. cornifolius var. subaureus (Oliver) Bailey 1883, N. incanus var. subaureus (Oliver) Moore & Betche 1893; incl. Viscum incanum var. aureum Ettingsh. 1871, N. subaureus var. cinereus Blakely 1928]B84

Santalum acuminatum (Br.) DC. 1857 [=Fusanus acuminatus Br. 1810, Eucarya acuminata (Br.) Sprague & Summerh. 1927, Mida acuminata (Br.) Kuntze 1891, Fusanus acuminatus var. typicus Hochr. 1925 (nom. illeg.); incl. Santalum cognatum Miq. in Lehm. 1845, S. densiflorum Gand. 1919, S. preissianum Miq. in Lehm. 1845]HG84

Santalum lanceolatum Br. 1810 [=S. lanceolatum var. typicum Domin 1921 (nom. illeg.); incl. S. lanceolatum var. angustifolium Benth. 1873 non S. angustifolium DC. 1857, S. leptocladum Gand. 1919, S. megacarpum Gand. 1919, S. oblongatum Br. 1810, S. lanceolatum var. oblongatum (Br.) Domin 1921, S. venosum Br. 1810, S. lanceolatum var. venosum (Br.) Bailey 1913 non Bailey 1902, S. lanceolatum var. venosum Bailey 1902]HG84

Santalum murrayanum (Mitchell) Gardn. 1930 [=*Eucarya murrayana Mitchell 1839, S. mitchellii Muell. 1861 (nom. illeg.); incl. Solanum angustifolium DC. 1857, Fusanus acuminatus var. angustifolius (DC.) Benth. 1873, S. persicarium Muell. 1855, F. persicarius (Muell.) Muell. ex Benth. 1873, Mida persicaria (Muell.) Kuntze 1891]HG84

Santalum obtusifolium Br. 1810 [incl. Fusanus crassifolium Br. 1810, Eucarya crassifolia (Br.) Sprague & Summerh. 1927, Mida crassifolia (Br.) Kuntze 1891, Santalum crassifolium (Br.) DC. 1857]HG84

Santalum spicatum (Br.) DC. 1857 [=Fusanus spicatus Br. 1810, Eucarya spicata (Br.) Sprague & Summerh. 1927, Mida spicata (Br.) Kuntze 1891; incl. Santalum cygnorum Miq. in Leh. 1845, M. cygnorum (Miq.) Kuntze 1891, Fusanus spicatus var. frutescens Hochr. 1925]HG84

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[B84] Barlow, B. A. 1984. Viscaceae. In: George, A. S. (ed.) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 131–145. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D81] Day, D. 1981. The Doomsday Book of Animals: A unique natural history of three hundred vanished species. Ebury Press: London.

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219–232.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[HG84] Hewson, H. J., & A. S. George. 1984. Santalaceae. In: George, A. S. (ed.) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 29–67. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[MF05] Monserrat, V. J. & S. de Freitas. 2005. Contribución al conocimiento de los crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Graellsia 61 (2): 163–179.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the “Maltese mushroom” Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[R-RR-GM-S98] Ramil-Rego, P., M. Rodríguez-Guitián & C. Muñoz-Sobrino. 1998. Sclerophyllous vegetation dynamics in the north of the Iberian peninsula during the last 16,000 years. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 335–351.

[SS72] Singh, V., & H. Singh. 1972. A contribution to the flora of Gangolihat block in Pithoragarh District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 352–368.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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