Loranthus europaeus, copyright Stefan Lefnaer.

Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Olacaceae, Aquilapollenites, Santalaceae, Amyema, Lysiana, Dendrophthoe, Decaisnina.

The Santalales are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analyses whose members produce small flowers with a valvate perianth and stamens with anther sacs and filaments (Nickrent et al. 2005). A large proportion of its members, including such forms as the sandalwoods and mistletoes, are at least partially parasitic on other plants. Aerial parasitism has evolved on multiple occasions from root-parasitic ancestors. The Balanophoraceae are root-parasites entirely lacking chlorophyll or roots, often with a superficially fungus-like appearance (Hewson 1984).

Christmas is coming
Published 13 November 2008
Western Australian Christmas tree, Nuytsia floribunda, in flower. Photo from Esperance Blog.

In the last few weeks, the Christmas trees near our house have begun flowering. Nuytsia floribunda, the Western Australian Christmas tree, is without doubt one of the most remarkable plants found in the Perth region. Even coming into my fourth summer here, the sight of a Christmas tree still never fails to catch my attention. Why are they so remarkable?

First, there’s the appearance of the tree itself. For most of the year, a Christmas tree is a fairly insignificant, often decidedly scraggly, dark green tree. It can reach a height of about ten metres, but I don’t think most of the ones I’ve seen (and they’re not uncommon in remnant bush patches) have been anywhere near so tall. You could be quite readily forgiven for overlooking them. But all that changes about the beginning of November, when they begin to flower—heavily. What was a point of scraggly green becomes a blazing firebrand of burnished gold, as the entire tree becomes covered in individually tiny, but collectively magnificent, yellow flowers. The flowers remain during the next few months, past the end of December (hence, of course, the name), blazing like a beacon all the while.

As noteworthy as this blazing cheer alone would be, Nuytsia has even more points worthy of fascination to draw the attention. Despite its attraction, Nuytsia is rarely grown as a garden plant, and most attempts to do so meet with little success. Why is Nuytsia so recalcitrant? Because this showy shrub is something of a floral femme fatale, with dark secrets hidden beneath the soil. Nuytsia is a parasite, with a double Christmas connection—it is the world’s largest mistletoe.

Plant roots with attached white Nuytsia haustoria. Photo from here (which also has a photo of Nuytsia haustoria attached to roots of broomrape, Orobanche minor, itself a holoparasite).

Mistletoes of the family Loranthaceae belong to a clade called Santalales that also includes such plants as sandalwoods. Most Santalales, including mistletoes, are hemiparasites—that is, they derive at least some of their nutrient requirements from other plants, but still retain chlorophyll and produce some of their nutrients themselves. The Santalales also include some non-parasitic species that form the paraphyletic outgroup to the parasitic clade (Nickrent & Malécot 2001), and recent studies suggest that the holoparasitic (entirely parasitic) Balanophoraceae may also belong to the Santalales (Nickrent et al. 2005). As it is, the parasitic Santalales are, by any measure, the most successful clade of plant-parasitic angiosperms in existence.

The majority of mistletoes are aerial parasites, growing directly on the trunk or branches of the host tree. Nuytsia, however, is a root parasite. It grows in the ground like a normal tree, but its roots hunt through the soil in search of the roots of other plants to latch onto and parasitise. Once the roots come into contact with a potential host, they start growing a pair of lateral projections that wrap around the host root, forming a doughnut-shaped haustorium (nutrient-absorptive tissue). On the inside of the haustorium, a sharp, hard structure develops shaped like a pair of horns, or the blades of a pair of scissors (Calladine & Pate 2000). The sharp inside edges of this structure quickly cut through the host root (exactly like a pair of scissors), severing it into two parts, and the haustorium then grows over the exposed ends of the roots, diverting the flow of nutrients and water away from the host and into the waiting Christmas tree. Nuytsia does not seem to be choosy when it comes to hosts—it may parasitise any trees within a radius of up to 150 m, but it may also parasitise smaller plants, even grass (allowing it to survive in locations without other trees). Nuytsia have also been recorded attempting to grow haustoria around buried twigs, small stones, and even electrical cables!

Cross-section of a Nuytsia haustorium, showing the hardened structure used to cut through the host root. Photo by Stephan Imhof.

Phylogenetic analysis shows that root parasitism represents the basal condition for parasitic Santalales, with multiple origins of aerial parasitism within the clade (Vidal-Russell & Nickrent 2008). In fact, the root-parasitic Nuytsia, as well as being the largest member of the family, is also the sister taxon to all other Loranthaceae, making it a fascinating taxon phylogenetically as well as ornamentally and ecologically. So the next time any of you see a Christmas tree in flower, stop for a moment and consider how there’s a lot more to it than you can see, hidden below the surface.

Sandalwoods, mistletoes and flowers of Hades
Published 13 March 2024

It is not hard to see why evolution would lead some organisms towards a parasitic lifestyle. Why invest your own time and energy into the search for sustenance when some other sap can do it for you? Even for sessile sun-catchers like plants, self-maintenance comes with demands. Photosynthetic pigments must be produced, leaves and roots much be grown, water balance must be maintained. But of the various plant clades that have chosen to short-cut this process, none have diversified as much as the parasitic Santalales.

Sandalwood trees Santalum spicatum, copyright Jean and Fred Hort.

Of the various plant families currently included in the Santalales, not all are parasitic. A dozen genera found in tropical regions of the world are divided between the free-living families Erythropalaceae, Strombosiaceae and Coulaceae (Nickrent et al. 2010). Most of these are shrubs or trees with simple, alternate leaves though the Indomalaysian Erythropalum scandens is a woody climber. Molecular studies agree that these families form a paraphyletic grade outside the single parasitic clade, members of which are currently divided between some fifteen families. Potential synapomorphies of the total Santalales include the production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and flowers exhibiting free central placentation with ovules arranged in a pendulous fashion from the apex of the central column (Nickrent et al. 2010). However, identification of the latter feature as a synapomorphy is complicated by its modification in derived subgroups. Flower structure often becomes reduced and simplified in parasitic taxa, such as reduction of the two whorls of tepals (petals and sepals) to a single whorl whose homology is difficult to decide.

Gabon nut Coula edulis, copyright Scamperdale.

The majority of Santalales are hemiparasitic: that is, they still produce leaves containing chlorophyll, and only part of their nutrient demands are obtained from other plants. Nevertheless, leaves of Santalales are often relatively fleshy, as the reduced demand for photosynthetic efficiency allows a more robust morphology. The first parasitic Santalales were root parasites, latching onto their hosts beneath the surface of the ground, and this lifestyle remains typical of families such as the sandalwoods of the Santalaceae. Aerial parasitism, growing direct from the stems and branches of hosts, is exhibited by the mistletoes of families such as Loranthaceae and Viscaceae. Phylogenetic analysis has established that aerial parasitism has evolved multiple times among the Santalales. An interesting subversion of the root parasite/ aerial parasite divide is exhibited by the Neotropical Loranthaceae species Gaiadendron punctatum which has been observed growing high in the tree canopy despite lacking the haustoria of true aerial parasites. This species is likely to be a root parasite attacking other nearby epiphytes (Nickrent et al. 2010).

European mistletoe Viscum album, copyright Małgorzata Miłaszewska.

Holoparasitism, involving the loss of chlorophyll production and complete reliance on their hosts for nutrients, has evolved among the Santalales on at least two occasions (Su et al. 2015). These holoparasitic forms, currently assigned to the families Balanophoraceae and Mystropetalaceae, are root parasites with little differentiated tissues other than reproductive structures. When not flowering, the plant body is more or less subterranean. The New Zealand Dactylanthus taylorii is referred to as te pua o te rēinga (“flower of the underworld”) in Maori, a name that has often been rendered as “flower of Hades” in English.

Balanophora fungosa, copyright Geoffrey Derrin.

Economically significant species of Santalales include the Gabon nut Coula edulis, a non-parasitic species found in western Africa whose nuts are said to have a mild flavour like chestnuts. The garlic-fruit tree Malania oleifera of southern China, belonging to the root-parasitic Ximeniaceae, produces oil that may be used for food or as a lubricant. Sandalwoods of the genus Santalum are harvested for their fragrant wood, used either for carving or as a source of aromatic oil. Numerous species of Santalales, particularly among the holoparasites, have been ascribed medicinal properties, though I am often at a loss to understand why. However, many such species have been threatened by over-enthusiastic collecting and their survival is now endangered. It is remarkable just how much damage around the world has been caused by questionable quackery.

Systematics of Santalales
<==Santalales [Santaliflorae]APG16
    |--Balanophoraceae [Balanophoreae]NDA05
    |    |  i. s.: RhopalocnemisH03
    |    |         DitepalanthusH03
    |    |         ExorhopalaH03
    |    |         CorynaeaYY22
    |    |         LathrophytumYY22
    |    |         OmbrophytumYY22
    |    |         Balanopollis minutus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978CBH93
    |    |--LophophytumYY22 [LophophytoideaeT00]
    |    |--MystropetalonNDA05 [MystropetaloideaeT00]
    |    |    `--M. thomiiNDA05
    |    |--SarcophytoideaeT00
    |    |    |--ChlamydophytumT00
    |    |    `--SarcophyteT00
    |    |--Helosidoideae [Scybalioideae]T00
    |    |    |--ScybaliumYY22
    |    |    `--Helosis [incl. Durogaster Lloyd 1919]KC01
    |    |         `--H. brasiliensisKC01
    |    |--DactylanthoideaeT00
    |    |    |--Hachettia austrocaledonicaT00, NDA05
    |    |    `--Dactylanthus Hooker 1859A61
    |    |         `--D. taylori Hooker 1859A61
    |    `--BalanophoroideaeT00
    |         |--ThonningiaT00
    |         `--Balanophora Forster & Forster 1776He84
    |              |--*B. fungosa Forster & Forster 1776He84
    |              |    |--B. f. ssp. fungosa [incl. B. fungosa f. extratropica Bailey 1911]He84
    |              |    `--B. f. ssp. indica (Arn.) Hansern 1972 [=Langsdorffia indica Arn. 1838]He84
    |              `--B. dioicaDD73
       `--+--Schoepfia [Schoepfiaceae]NDA05
          |    |--S. jasminodoraSDT88
          |    `--S. schreberiNDA05
          `--Loranthaceae [Loranthoideae]B12
               |--Agelanthus discolorCV06
               |--Alepis flavida (Hooker) Van Tieghem 1894BS01, A61 (see below for synonymy)
               |--Ileostylus micranthus (Hooker) Van Tieghem 1894BS01, A61 (see below for synonymy)
               |--Psittacanthus calyculatusEN20
               |--Spinulaepollis arceuthobioidesCBH93
               |--Expressipollis striatusCBH93
               |--Aciella Tiegh. 1894KC01
               |--Dendrophagus Toumey 1900 non Schönherr 1809 (ICZN)KC01
               |--Lepidella Tiegh. 1911KC01
               |--Phrygilanthus Eichl. 1868A61
               |--Taxillus vestitusSS72
               |--Scurrula parasiticaDD73
               |--Distrianthes molliflora (Krause) Danser 1929 (see below for synonymy)B81
               |--Lepeostegeres deciduus Barlow 1974B81
               |--Papuanthes albertisii (Tiegh.) Danser 1931 (see below for synonymy)B81
               |--Tetradyas perfoliata Danser 1931B81
               |--Nuytsia Br. 1831B84
               |    `--*N. floribunda (Labill.) Br. 1831 [=Loranthus floribundus Labill. 1805]B84
               |--Benthamina Tieghem 1895 [=Loranthus ser. Benthamina (Tieghem) Blakely 1925]B84
               |    `--*B. alyxifolia (Muell. ex Benth.) Tieghem 1895 (see below for synonymy)B84
               |--Atkinsonia Muell. 1865KC01
               |    `--*A. ligustrina (Cunn. ex Lindley) Muell. 1865 (see below for synonymy)B84
               |--Tupeia Cham. & Schlecht. 1828A61
               |    `--T. antarctica (Forster) Cham. & Schlecht. 1828 (see below for synonymy)A61
               |--Elytranthe Blume 1830A61
               |    `--E. adamsii (Cheesem.) Engl. 1897 (see below for synonymy)A61
               |--Cecarria Barlow in Barlow & Wiens 1973B84
               |    `--*C. obtusifolia (Merr.) Barlow in Barlow & Wiens 1973B84 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--P. colensoi (Hooker) Van Tieghem 1894BS01, A61 (see below for synonymy)
               |    `--P. tetrapetala Van Tieghem 1894BS01, A61 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--L. catterallii Srivastava 1969YB02
               |    `--L. succineus Conwentz 1886CBH93
               |--Amylotheca Tieghem 1894 [=Loranthus sect. Amylotheca (Tieghem) Blakely 1875]B84
               |    |--*A. dictyophleba (Muell.) Tieghem 1894 (see below for synonymy)B84
               |    |--A. acuminatifolia Barlow 1974B81
               |    `--A. subumbellata Barlow 1966B84
               |--Dactyliophora Tieghem 1894B84
               |    |--*D. verticillata (Scheffer) Tieghem 1894B84 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--D. novaeguineae (Bailey) Danser 1929 [=Loranthus novaeguineae Bailey 1902]B84
               |    `--D. salomonia Danser 1935B81
               |--Loranthus Linnaeus 1762A61
               |    |--L. elasticusA78
               |    |--L. europaeusB08
               |    |--L. formosusT-W89
               |    |--L. ligustrinusG72
               |    |--L. pentandrusR13
               |    |--L. praelongusA78
               |    |--L. schultessiA78
               |    |--L. tetragonusT-W89
               |    `--L. tetrandrusF43
               |--Diplatia Tieghem 1894 [=Loranthus sect. Diplatia (Tieghem) Engl. 1897]B84
               |    |--*D. grandibractea (Muell.) Tieghem 1894 (see below for synonymy)B84
               |    |--D. furcata Barlow 1962B84
               |    `--D. tomentosa Barlow 1966B84
               |    |--D. bistratusJ87
               |    |--D. parvifoliusJ87
               |    `--D. pycnophyllusJ87
               |    |--M. cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh. 1894B81 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |    |--M. c. var. cochinchinensisB81
               |    |    `--M. c. var. lanceolatus Barlow 1974B81
               |    `--M. platyphyllus [=Elytranthe platyphylla]P88
               |--Muellerina Tieghem 1895B84
               |    |--*M. celastroides (Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes) Tieghem 1895 (see below for synonymy)B84
               |    |--M. bidwillii (Benth.) Barlow 1962 (see below for synonymy)B84
               |    |--M. eucalyptoides (DC.) Barlow 1962 (see below for synonymy)B84
               |    `--M. myrtifolia (Cunn. ex Benth.) Barlow 1962 (see below for synonymy)B84
               |    |--H. coccineaP88
               |    |--H. ligustrinaDD73
               |    |--H. parasitica [incl. Loranthus pentapetalus]DD73
               |    `--H. terrestrisDD73
                    |--S. cupuliformis Barlow 1974B81
                    |--S. sessiliflora (Danser) Danser 1933 (see below for synonymy)B81
                    |--S. sogerensis (Moore) Danser 1933 (see below for synonymy)B81
                    `--S. versicolor Danser 1935 [incl. S. trilobobractea Danser 1940]B81
Santalales incertae sedis:
    |--Opilioxylon nigerinum Koeniguer 1970CBH93
    |--Opilia Roxb. 1802Hi84
    |    |--*O. amentacea Roxb. 1802Hi84
    |    |--O. angustifoliaE17
    |    `--O. mildbraedii Engler 1917E17
    `--Cansjera Juss. 1789 (nom. cons.)Hi84
         |--*C. rheedeiHi84
         `--C. leptostachya Benth. 1843Hi84
    `--Antidaphne [incl. Eremolepis]T00
         `--‘Eremolepis’ wrightiiJ87
  MisodendrumA-LL98 [=MyzodendronA-LL98; MisodendraceaeT00, Myzodendraceae]
    |--M. linearifolium de Candolle 1830 [=Angelopogon linearifolius ms, Myzodendron linearifolium]A-LL98
    |    |--M. l. var. linearifoliumA-LL98
    |    `--M. l. var. contractum Skottsberg 1913 [=M. linearifolium f. monoica Skottsberg 1913 (n. n.)]A-LL98
    |--M. oblongifolium de Candolle 1830 [=Angelopogon heterophyllus ms]A-LL98
    `--M. punctulatum (see below for synonymy)A-LL98
Nomina nuda: Peraxilla haastii [=Elytranthe haastii]C06
             Peraxilla uniflora [=Elytranthe uniflora]C06
             Trilepidea ralphii Van Tieghem 1895C06

Alepis flavida (Hooker) Van Tieghem 1894BS01, A61 [=Loranthus flavidus Hooker 1853A61, Elytranthe flavida (Hooker) Engl. 1897A61; incl. L. polychroa Colenso 1885C06, Alepis polychroa (Colenso) Van Tieghem 1895C06]

*Amylotheca dictyophleba (Muell.) Tieghem 1894 [=Loranthus dictyophlebus Muell. 1860, Aciella dictyophleba (Muell.) Tieghem 1895, Elytranthe dictyophleba (Muell.) Engl. 1897; incl. Loranthus beauverdiana Bailey 1908, L. tenuifolius Bailey 1903]B84

*Atkinsonia ligustrina (Cunn. ex Lindley) Muell. 1865 [=Nuytsia ligustrina Cunn. ex Lindley 1840, Gaiadendron ligustrinum (Cunn. ex Lindley) Engl. 1889, Loranthus atkinsonae Benth. ex Oliver 1880]B84

*Benthamina alyxifolia (Muell. ex Benth.) Tieghem 1895 [=Loranthus alyxifolius Muell. ex Benth. 1867, Amyema alyxifolium (Muell. ex Benth.) Danser 1929]B84

*Cecarria obtusifolia (Merr.) Barlow in Barlow & Wiens 1973B84 [=Phrygilanthus obtusifolius Merr. 1906B84, Muellerina obtusifolia (Merr.) Barlow 1962B84; incl. P. novoguineensis Krause 1922B81, M. novoguineensis (Krause) Barlow 1962B81]

*Dactyliophora verticillata (Scheffer) Tieghem 1894B84 [=Dendrophthoe verticillata Scheffer 1876B81, Loranthus verticillatus (Scheffer) Muell. 1897 (nom. illeg.)B81; incl. L. basiflorus Krause 1922B81, Dactyliophora basiflora (Krause) Danser 1929B81, L. globiflorus Bl. 1898B81, L. kaniensis Krause 1922B81, Amyema speciosa Danser 1931B81, L. thespesiae Krause 1922B81, Dactyliophora thespesiae (Krause) Danser 1929B81]

*Diplatia grandibractea (Muell.) Tieghem 1894 [=Loranthus grandibracteus Muell. 1860; incl. D. tenuifolia Tieghem 1894]B84

Distrianthes molliflora (Krause) Danser 1929 [=Loranthus molliflorus Krause 1922; incl. L. lamii Krause 1923, Distrianthes lamii (Krause) Danser 1929, L. spathatus Krause 1922, D. spathata (Krause) Danser 1929]B81

Elytranthe adamsii (Cheesem.) Engl. 1897 [=Loranthus adamsii Cheesem. 1881, Trilepidea adamsii (Cheesem.) Van Tieghem 1894]A61

Ileostylus micranthus (Hooker) Van Tieghem 1894BS01, A61 [=Loranthus micranthus Hooker 1853A61; incl. Viscum antarcticum Cunn. 1839 non Forster 1786A61, Ileostylus kirkii Van Tieghem 1895A61]

Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh. 1894B81 [=Loranthus cochinchinensis Lour. 1790B81, Elytranthe cochinchinensis (Lour.) Don 1834B81; incl. E. acutifolia Krause 1922B81, Loranthus ampullaceusG72, E. bruynii Krause 1923B81, E. diversifolia Krause 1922B81, E. ledermannii Krause 1922B81, E. leucophloea Krause 1923B81, E. spathulifolia Krause 1922B81, E. suberosa Laut. 1912B81, Macrosolen suberosus (Laut.) Danser 1929B81, E. torulosa Krause 1922B81, E. verrucosa Krause 1922B81]

Misodendrum punctulatum [incl. Mi. punctulatum var. magellanicum de Candolle 1830, Mi. rioquinoense Kuntze 1893, Myzodendron rioquinoense]A-LL98

Muellerina bidwillii (Benth.) Barlow 1962 [=Loranthus bidwillii Benth. 1867, Furcilla bidwillii (Benth.) Tieghem 1895, Phrygilanthus bidwillii (Benth.) Eichler in Martius 1868]B84

*Muellerina celastroides (Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes) Tieghem 1895 [=Loranthus celastroides Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes 1829, Dendrophthoe celastroides (Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes) Martius 1830, Phrygilanthus celastroides (Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes) Eichler in Martius 1868 (nom. illeg.), Loranthus celastroides var. typicus Domin 1921 (nom. illeg.) non L. signatus var. typicus Domin 1921; incl. L. raoulii Tieghem 1895, Muellerina raoulii (Tieghem) Tieghem 1895, Phrygilanthus raoulii (Van Tieghem) Engl. 1897 (nom. illeg.), L. tenuiflorus Hooker 1853, Hookerella tenuiflora (Hooker) Tieghem 1895, Phrygilanthus tenuiflorus (Hooker) Engl. 1897 (nom. illeg.)]B84

Muellerina eucalyptoides (DC.) Barlow 1962 [=Loranthus eucalyptoides DC. 1830, Dendrophthoe eucalyptoides (DC.) Ettingsh. 1872, Phrygilanthus eucalyptoides (DC.) Danser 1929 (nom. illeg.), Loranthus eucalyptifolius Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes 1829 non Kunth 1820, L. celastroides var. eucalyptifolius (Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes) Domin 1921, Muellerina eucalyptifolia (Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes) Tieghem 1895, Phrygilanthus eucalyptifolius (Sieber ex Schultes & Schultes) Eichler in Martius 1868 (nom. illeg.)]B84

Muellerina myrtifolia (Cunn. ex Benth.) Barlow 1962 [=Loranthus myrtifolius Cunn. ex Benth. 1867, Furcilla myrtifolia (Cunn. ex Benth.) Tieghem 1895, Phrygilanthus myrtifolius (Cunn. ex Benth.) Eichler in Martius 1868]B84

Papuanthes albertisii (Tiegh.) Danser 1931 [=Diplatia albertisii Tiegh. 1894, Loranthus albertisii (Tiegh.) Engl. 1897]B81

Peraxilla colensoi (Hooker) Van Tieghem 1894BS01, A61 [=Loranthus colensoi Hooker 1844A61, Elytranthe colensoi (Hooker) Engl. 1897A61]

Peraxilla tetrapetala Van Tieghem 1894BS01, A61 [=Loranthus tetrapetalus Murr. 1774A61, Elytranthe tetrapetala (Murr.) Engl. 1897A61; incl. L. decussatus Kirk 1871A61, Peraxilla decussataC06, L. fieldii Buchan. 1884A61, Neamyza fieldii Van Tieghem 1895C06, L. punctatus Col. 1883A61, Elytranthe punctataC06, Peraxilla punctataC06]

Sogerianthe sessiliflora (Danser) Danser 1933 [=Amyema sessiliflora Danser 1931; incl. S. ferruginea Danser 1938, Loranthus hedraeanthus Krause 1935]B81

Sogerianthe sogerensis (Moore) Danser 1933 [=Elytranthe sogerenis Moore 1923, Amyema sogerensis (Moore) Danser 1929, Loranthus sogerensis (Moore) Engl. & Krause 1935]B81

Tupeia antarctica (Forster) Cham. & Schlecht. 1828 [=Viscum antarcticum Forster 1786; incl. T. cunninghamii Miq. 1844, V. pubigerum Cunn. 1839, T. pubigera Miq. 1844, T. undulata Colenso 1884]A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[A-LL98] Arroyo-Leuenberger, S., & B. E. Leuenberger. 1998. Type specimens of names in Misodendraceae at the Berlin-Dahlem herbarium (B). Willdenowia 28: 249–252.

[BS01] Bannister, P., & G. L. Strong. 2001. The distribution and population structure of the temperate mistletoe Ileostylus micranthus in the Northern Cemetery, Dunedin, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 39: 225–233.

[B81] Barlow, B. A. 1981. Loranthaceae. In: Henty, E. E. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 2 pp. 206–254. Melbourne University Press.

[B84] Barlow, B. A. 1984. Loranthaceae. In: George, A. S. (eds) Flora of Australia vol. 22. Rhizophorales to Celastrales pp. 68–131. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[B08] Brittlebank, C. C. 1908. The life-history of Loranthus exocarpi Behr. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 650–656, pls 15–20.

Calladine, A., & J. S. Pate. 2000. Haustorial structure and functioning of the root hemiparastic tree Nuytsia floribunda (Labill.) R.Br. and water relationships with its hosts. Annals of Botany 85: 723–731.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

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