Sapindales

Titoki Alectryon excelsus, copyright Tatters.

Belongs within: Malvidae.
Contains: Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Simaroubaceae, Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Acer, Dodonaea.

The Sapindales are a clade of flowering plants whose members often accumulate noxious secondary metabolites. Members include the Sapindaceae, a family of woody plants with often spiral, pinnately-compound leaves with subopposite leaflets and a terminal rhachis tip (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). The Aceroideae (maples) and Hippocastanoideae (horse-chestnuts) have each been treated as separate families by some authors. Aceroideae have fruit that are samaras, with seeds contained with nutlets attached to a fibrous wing. Fruits of Hippocastanoideae are capsules that dehisce into three valves.

Other members of the Sapindales include Nitraria, a genus of often spiny, pubescent shrubs found in arid regions of the Old World. The Peganaceae are perennial herbs or shrubs with simple, alternate leaves found in arid and semiarid regions. Tepuianthus is a genus of shrubs endemic to highlands of the Guyana Shield in northern South America.

Characters (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Interesting secondary compounds, ethereal oils, myricetin present; mucilage cells present; branching from previous innovation, petioles leaving a prominent scar; leaves spiral, odd-pinnately compound, leaflets opposite, vernation conduplicate; inflorescence branches, at least, cymose; twice as many anthers as sepals; tapetal cells polyploid; nectary well developed; carpels equal to and opposite petals, or 3, odd member adaxial, stigmatic head from postgenitally united free carpel tips; ovules few/carpel, epitropous, nucellar cap present; exotegmen not fibrous.

<==Sapindales [Rutineae]
    |  i. s.: Biebersteinia [Biebersteiniaceae]T00
    |         Tepuianthus [Tepuianthaceae]T00
    |         PeganaceaeT00
    |           |--MalacocarpusT00
    |           |--Peganum harmalaT00, C55a
    |           `--TetradiclisT00
    |         Choerospondias axillarisWM09, D07
    |--+--+--RutaceaeMS06
    |  |  `--+--MeliaceaeMS06
    |  |     `--SimaroubaceaeMS06
    |  `--+--+--AnacardiaceaeMS06
    |     |  `--BurseraceaeMS06
    |     `--Nitraria [Nitrariaceae]WM09
    |          |--N. billardiereiKM08
    |          |--N. retusaWM09
    |          |--N. schoberiB14
    |          `--N. tridentataD17
    `--Sapindaceae [Xanthoceraceae, Xanthocerataceae]MS06
         |  i. s.: CardiospermumD01
         |           |--C. grandiflorumH06
         |           `--C. halicacabumLK14
         |         SerjaniaD01
         |           |  i. s.: S. polyphyllaSWK87
         |           |--S. sect. CeratococcusR16
         |           |    |--S. aluligeraR16
         |           |    |--S. calligera Radlkofer 1916R16
         |           |    `--S. cornigeraR16
         |           `--S. sect. PlatycoccusR16
         |                |--S. platypetala Radlkofer 1916R16
         |                `--S. squarrosaR16
         |         DiploglottisW01
         |           |--D. cunninghamiiH97
         |           `--D. diphyllostegiaW01
         |         SapindopsisGT02
         |           |--S. alpinaGT02
         |           `--S. cordata Fontaine 1889CBH93
         |         LepisanthesLK14
         |           |--L. burmanicaDD73
         |           |--L. fruticosaK03
         |           `--L. rubiginosaLK14
         |         Crossonephelis palawanicusH03
         |         Lepidopetalum subdichotomumB00
         |         NepheliumK03
         |           |--N. beckleriH97
         |           |--N. foveolatumH97
         |           |--N. lappaceumK03
         |           |--N. litchiT-W89
         |           `--N. ramboutan-akeK03 [=Litsea ramboutan-akeL00]
         |         DistichostemonYY22
         |         CupaniaJ87
         |           |--C. americanaJ87
         |           |--C. anacardioidesC16
         |           |--C. foveolataH97
         |           |--C. latifoliaR16
         |           |--C. polyodonta Radlkofer in Engl.-Prantl 1907R16
         |           |--C. semiglauca [=Guioa semiglauca]MB08
         |           |--C. triquetraSWK87
         |           |--C. vernalisB04
         |           `--C. xylocarpaH97
         |         Filicium decipiensT00, SR07
         |         Tina Schultes in Roemer & Schultes 1819A-R03
         |           `--*T. thouarsiana (Camb.) Capuron 1969 [=Cupania thouarsiana]A-R03
         |         Gelonium Gaertner 1791 (n. d.)A-R03
         |           `--*G. cupanioides Gaertner 1791 (n. d.) [=Molinaea cupanioides, Tina gelonium]A-R03
         |         Molinaea laevis Willdenow 1799A-R03
         |         AllophyllusB00
         |           |--A. abyssinicusPB27
         |           |--A. cobbeMS06
         |           |--A. crassinervisJ87
         |           |--A. edulisH11
         |           |--A. occidentalisMM96
         |           |--A. rigidusJ87
         |           `--A. zeylanicusDD73
         |                |--A. z. var. zeylanicusDD73
         |                `--A. z. var. grandifoliaDD73
         |         HarpulliaMS06
         |           |--H. arboreaMS06
         |           |--H. hilliiB00
         |           |--H. pendulaB00
         |           |--H. ramifloraB00
         |           `--H. wadsworthiiH97
         |         CupaniopsisWM09
         |           |--C. anacardioidesWM09
         |           |--C. dunnii [=Cupania dunnii Maiden & Betche 1908]MB08
         |           |--C. serrataMB08
         |           `--C. wadsworthiiMB08
         |         AtalayaB00
         |           |--A. hemiglaucaB00
         |           |--A. salicifoliaB00
         |           `--A. variifoliaB00
         |         Ganophyllum falcatumLK14
         |         Guioa acutifoliaB00
         |         HeterodendronB00
         |           |--H. diversifoliumB00
         |           `--H. oleifoliumBR65
         |         Litchi chinensisB00
         |         SarcopteryxB00
         |           |--S. martyanaB00
         |           `--S. stipataB00
         |         AryteraB00
         |           |--A. divaricataB00
         |           `--A. paucifloraB00
         |         PaulliniaR16
         |           |--P. ovalis Radlkofer 1916R16
         |           |--P. pinnataC55b
         |           `--P. rugosaR16
         |         Dipterodendron elegansH11
         |         Talisia olivaeformisF11
         |         SapindospermumCBH93
         |         Wehrwolfea Erwin & Stockey 1990CBH93
         |         BohleniaCBH93
         |         Diplopeltis Endl. 1837KC01
         |           |--D. huegeliiK90
         |           |    |--D. h. var. huegeliiK90
         |           |    `--D. h. var. subintegraK90
         |           |--D. intermediaK90
         |           |--D. petiolarisK90
         |           `--D. stuartiiMLP09
         |         Phaeocarpus Mart. & Zucc. 1824KC01
         |         Schleichera oleosaM72
         |         Alphania rubraDD73
         |         AphanococcusT-W89
         |         PseudonepheliumT-W89
         |         Xerospermum noronhianumT-W89
         |         Tristiropsis acutangula [incl. T. nativitatis]JG19
         |--Aceroideae [Aceraceae]T00
         |    |--Dipteronia sinensisD01
         |    |--AcerT00
         |    `--Negundoides acutifolia Lesquereux 1868CBH93
         |--KoelreuteriaCD07 [KoelreuterioideaeT00]
         |    |--K. annosa Brown 1956B56
         |    |--K. elegansB00
         |    |--K. nigricansB56
         |    `--K. paniculata Laxm. 1753CD07
         |--SapindusF71 [SapindoideaeT00]
         |    |--S. drummondiiDD06
         |    |--S. emarginatusS72
         |    |--S. gossei Ettingshausen 1886F71
         |    |--S. laurifoliusM72
         |    `--S. mukorossiLO98
         |--Hippocastanoideae [Hippocastanaceae]T00
         |    |--Billia columbianaT00, R96
         |    `--AesculusT00
         |         |--A. californicaH93
         |         |--A. carneaD37
         |         |--A. glabraV72
         |         |--A. hippocastanumD37
         |         |--A. paviaD37
         |         `--A. turbinataLO98
         `--Dodonaeoideae [Dodonaeae]T00
              |--DodonaeaA61
              `--Alectryon Gertn. 1788C06, A61
                   |--A. connatusB00
                   |--A. coriaceusB00
                   |--A. excelsus Gaertn. 1788A61
                   |--A. grandis Cheesem. 1912 [=A. excelsus var. grandis Cheesem. 1892]A61
                   |--A. kimberleyanusLK14
                   |--A. oleifoliusKM08
                   `--A. subcinereusB00

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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