Sarcomeniaceae

Platysiphonia delicata, copyright Tom Schils.

Belongs within: Ceramiales.

The Sarcomeniaceae are a group of red algae intermediate in some respects between the related families Rhodomelaceae and Delesseriaceae: they have pericentral cells in the thallus that are cut off in an alternating sequence as in Rhodomelaceae, but they have tetrasporangia cut off before the cover cells as in Delesseriaceae (Womersley 2003).

Characters (from Womersley 2003): Thallus erect, much branched, branches terete or compressed, usually gelatinous and decaying rapidly. Apical cells prominent, protruding, axial cells with 4 pericentral cells cut off in alternating sequence with the first-formed transverse pericentral cells lying in a linear row. The slightly larger lateral pericentral cells each cut off 2 half-length flanking cells (only associated with reproduction in Malaconema) which produce rows of cells in some genera. Branching endogenous (except for monosiphonous filaments in Dotyella and Sarcotrichia). Trichoblasts absent, but some genera with simple, monosiphonous, rhodoplastic filaments from the pericentral or flanking cells, arising well below the apices, or endogenous from axial cells (in Cottoniella). Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps borne on the adaxial transverse pericentral cells, with a 4-celled carpogonial branch and 2 sterile cells; carposporophytes with a basal fusion cell and much branched gonimoblast with clavate terminal carposporangia, replaced from lower cells; cystocarps external to branches, ovoid to urceolate, pericarp arising post-fertilization, ostiolate, with numerous erect filaments developed from adjacent pericentral cells, each cell cutting off 2–3 outer pericentral cells, corticated or not. Spermatangia borne in sori on the surface of shorter, compressed, lateral blades. Tetrasporangia in stichidia, cut off from lateral pericentral cells, in 2 longitudinal, distichous, rows, in a single layer, with post-sporangial cover cells on both sides.

<==Sarcomeniaceae [Sarcomenieae]
    |--DotyellaW03
    |--Sarcomenia Sonder 1845W03
    |    `--*S. delesserioides Sonder 1845 [incl. Hypoglossum muelleri Kützing 1866]W03
    |--Malaconema Womersley & Shepley 1959W03
    |    |--*M. roeanum (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |    `--M. minimum Hollenberg 1963W03
    |--Sarcotrichia Womersley & Shepley 1959W03
    |    |--*S. tenera (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |    `--S. dolichocystidea (Agardh) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Sarcomenia dolichocystidea Agardh 1896]W03
    |--Cottoniella Børgesen 1919W03
    |    |--*C. arcuata Børgesen 1919W03
    |    |--C. filamentosa (Howe) Børgesen 1920W03
    |    |--C. fusiformis Børgesen 1930 (see below for synonymy)W03
    |    `--C. triseriata Hollenberg 1967W03
    `--Platysiphonia Børgesen 1931W03
         |--P. delicata (Clemente) Cremades in Cremades & Perez-Cirera 1990 (see below for synonymy)W03
         |--P. clevelandii (Farlow) Papenfuss 1944 [=Taenioma clevelandii]W03
         |--P. hypneoides (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959W03
         |--P. intermedia (Grunow) Wynne 1983W03
         |--P. marginalis Wynne, Millar & Kraft 1984W03
         |--P. mutabilis (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 (see below for synonymy)W03
         `--P. victoriae (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 (see below for synonymy)W03

Cottoniella fusiformis Børgesen 1930 [=C. arcuata var. fusiformis (Børgesen) Schotter 1951, C. filamentosa var. fusiformis (Børgesen) Cormaci et al. 1978]W03

*Malaconema roeanum (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Polysiphonia roeana Harvey 1855, Vertebrata roeana (Harvey) Kuntze 1891]W03

Platysiphonia delicata (Clemente) Cremades in Cremades & Perez-Cirera 1990 [=Conferva delicata Clemente y Rubio 1807; incl. Hutchinsia miniata Agardh 1828, *Platysiphonia miniata (Agardh) Børgesen 1931, Polysiphonia miniata (Agardh) Kützing 1849, Sarcomenia miniata (Agardh) Agardh 1863]W03

Platysiphonia mutabilis (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Polysiphonia mutabilis Harvey 1855, Sarcomenia mutabilis (Harvey) Agardh 1863]W03

Platysiphonia victoriae (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Sarcomenia victoriae Harvey ex Agardh 1863, Polysiphonia victoriae (Harvey) Kützing 1864; incl. Platysiphonia corymbosa (Agardh) Womersley & Shepley 1959, Sarcomenia corymbosa Agardh 1896, S. dasyoides Agardh 1863, S. opposita Agardh 1899, S. wilsonis Agardh 1899]W03

*Sarcotrichia tenera (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1959 [=Dasya tenera Harvey 1855, Sarcomenia tenera (Harvey) Agardh 1863; incl. Sarcomenia secundata Agardh 1899]W03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[W03] Womersley, H. B. S. 2003. The Marine Benthic Flora of southern Australia. Rhodophyta pt IIID. Ceramiales—Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 18. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra, and the State Herbarium of South Australia: Adelaide.

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