Pair of Paradirphia lasiocampina, photographed by Franz Ziereis.

Belongs within: Bombycoidea.
Contains: Syssphinginae, Antheraea, Saturniinae.

The Saturnioidea are a group of often very large moths, with hairy bodies and often prominent eye-spots on the wings. The proboscis is usually absent in adults which are short-lived and do not feed. Some larger species have distinctive tailed hindwings; such species have previously been associated in the family Syssphingidae but this is regarded as a polyphyletic assemblage by more recent authors. Members of the subfamily Hemileucinae have gregarious larvae bearing tubercles with poisonous spines.

    |    |--SyssphinginaeS55
    |    `--Rhescyntis [Rhescyntinae]S55
    |         `--R. armida (Cramer 1780) [=Phalaena (Attacus) armida]S55
    `--Saturniidae [Attacidae]S55
         |  i. s.: Aurivillius Packard 1902C92
         |         LoepaDS73
         |           |--L. damartisDS73
         |           |--L. katinka (Westwood 1848)I92
         |           |    |--L. k. katinkaI92
         |           |    `--L. k. sakaei Inoue 1965I92
         |           |--L. megacoreDS73
         |           `--L. newara [=Rhodinia newara]DS73
         |         Loxolomia serpentinaDS73
         |         ArsenuraNSp07
         |           |--A. armidaDS73
         |           |--A. aspasiaDS73
         |           |--A. batesii (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Aricia batesii]NSp07
         |           |--A. biundulataDS73
         |           |--A. cassandraDS73
         |           `--A. herculesDS73
         |         Heliconisa pagensteckeriDS73
         |         IthomisaDS73
         |         Dirphia Hb. 1816NSp07, B90 [incl. Ormiscodes Blanchard 1852B90]
         |           |--‘Ormiscodes’ cinnamomeaB90
         |           |--D. crinita (Blanchard 1854) [=Bombyx crinita; incl. Saturnia hyadesi]B90
         |           |--D. fraterna (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes fraterna]NSp07
         |           |--D. multicolorDS73
         |           `--D. thliptophana (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes thliptophana]NSp07
         |         MachaerosemaDS73
         |           |--M. hippodamiaDS73
         |           `--M. mortii [=Rhescyntis martii]DS73
         |         Eudaemonia derceto [=Copiopteryx derceto]DS73
         |         CopiopteryxNSp07
         |           |--C. jehovahDS73
         |           |--C. semiramisNSp07
         |           |    |--C. s. semiramisNSp07
         |           |    `--C. s. phoenix (Deyrolle 1869) [=Aricia phoenix]NSp07
         |           |--C. sonthonnaxiDS73
         |           `--C. virgoDS73
         |         DysdaemoniaNSp07
         |           |--D. boreas (Cramer 1775) [incl. Aricia auster Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
         |           |--D. kayiDS73
         |           |--D. platydesmiaDS73
         |           |    |--D. p. platydesmiaDS73
         |           |    `--D. p. castaneaDS73
         |           `--D. plutoDS73
         |         Philosamia cynthiaDS73
         |         AntheraeaDS73
         |         Pseudantheraea arnobia [incl. P. discrepans]DS73
         |         NudaureliaDS73
         |         ArgemaNSp07
         |           |--A. mimosaDS73
         |           `--A. mittrei (Guérin-Ménéville 1847) [incl. Actias idea Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
         |         Graellsia isabelae (Graells 1849)DS73, L-SSY04
         |         Neocarnegia basireiDS73
         |         Bunaea alcinoeDS73
         |         PseudobunaeaDS73
         |           |--P. iriusDS73
         |           `--P. tyrrhenaDS73
         |         LobobunaeaDS73
         |           |--L. phaedusaDS73
         |           `--L. saturnusDS73
         |         Imbrasia macrothryrisDS73
         |         Pseudimbrasia deyrolleiDS73
         |         CriculaDS73
         |           |--C. andreiDS73
         |           |--C. drepanoidesDS73
         |           `--C. trifenestrataDS73
         |         HyalophoraDS73
         |           |--H. cecropiaDS73
         |           |--H. columbiaDS73
         |           |--H. euryalusDS73
         |           `--H. gloveriDS73
         |         DictyoplocaDS73
         |           |--D. japonicaDS73
         |           `--D. simlaDS73
         |         Samia cynthiaGE05
         |         Coscinocera herculesNC91
         |         Gonimbrasia zambesina (Walker 1865) [incl. Thyella zambesia Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
         |         Eochroa Felder & Felder 1874NSp07
         |           `--*E. trimenii Felder & Felder 1874 [=E. trimeni]NSp07
         |         DirphiopsisNSp07
         |           |--D. epiolina (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes epiolina]NSp07
         |           |--D. multicolor (Walker 1855) [incl. Ormiscodes ramigera Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
         |           |--D. pulchricornis (Walker 1865) [incl. Ormiscodes pomona Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
         |           `--D. trisignata (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes trisignata]NSp07
         |         Bathyphlebia Felder & Felder 1874NSp07
         |           `--*B. aglia Felder & Felder 1874NSp07
         |         Polythysana apollina Felder & Felder 1874NSp07
         |         Tagoropsis Felder & Felder 1874NSp07
         |           `--T. flavinata (Walker 1865) [incl. *T. natalensis Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
         |         Ludia hansalii Felder & Felder 1874 [=L. hansali]NSp07
         |         LeucanellaNSp07
         |           |--L. aspera (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria aspera]NSp07
         |           `--L. janeira (Westwood 1854) [incl. Hyperchiria fumata Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
         |         Gamelia anableps (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria anableps]NSp07
         |         Automerella flexuosa (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria flexuosa]NSp07
         |         Automerina caudatula (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hyperchiria caudatula]NSp07
         |         Cercophana frauenfeldi Felder 1862NSp07
         |         Protogarce sextaF70
         |         OpodiphtheraNC91
         |           |--O. eucalyptiNC91
         |           |--O. helenaNC91
         |           `--O. loranthiNC91
         |         Tropaea seleneP01
         |         Agapema galbinaG05
         |           |--A. g. galbinaG05
         |           `--A. g. anonaG05
         |         Anisota discolorS96
         |         Dryocampa rubicundaRM01
         |         Callosamia prometheaW92
         |         Platysamia cecropiaRD77 [=Attacus cecropiaL90]
         |    |--Oxytenis [incl. Homoeopteryx Felder & Felder 1874]NSp07
         |    |    `--O. syssauroides (Felder & Felder 1874) [=*Homoeopteryx syssauroides]NSp07
         |    `--TheriniaKP19
         |         |--T. geometraria (Felder 1862) [=Asthenia geometraria]NSp07
         |         `--T. lactucinaKP19
            `--+--Eacles [Ceratocampidae, Ceratocampinae]KP19
               |    `--E. imperialisS55
               |         |--E. i. imperialisS55
               |         `--E. i. decoris Rothschild 1907S55
               `--Hemileucinae [Hemileucidae]KP19
                    |    |--P. fumosa (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes fumosa]NSp07
                    |    `--P. lasiocampina (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Ormiscodes lasiocampina]NSp07
                         |--H. lucinaWD04
                         |--H. magnificaG05
                         |--H. maiaWW96
                         |--H. oliviaeG05
                         `--H. rubridorsa Felder & Felder 1874NSp07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B90] Berg, C. 1890. Observations suivantes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccxl–ccxli.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[F70] Fitch, W. M. 1970. Distinguishing homologous from analogous proteins. Systematic Zoology 19 (2): 99–113.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L90] Laboulbène, A. 1890. Attacus cecropia. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: cxxxii–cxxxiii.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[NSc07] Nässig, W. A., & C. H. Schulze. 2007. A second species with diurnal males of the genus Eupterote from Indonesia: Eupterote (Eupterote) splendens sp. n. from Sulawesi (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea, Eupterotidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 189–194.

[NSp07] Nässig, W. A., & W. Speidel. 2007. On the authorships of the Lepidoptera Atlas of the “Reise der Novara”, with a list of the taxa of Bombycoidea [s. l.] therein described (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 63–74.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[RM01] Regier, J. C., C. Mitter, T. P. Friedlander & R. S. Peigler. 2001. Re: phylogenetic relationships in Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera): initial evidence from two nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20 (2): 311–316.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Saturniiden aus El Salvador (Ins. Lep. Heterocera). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 209–213.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

[WD04] Wardhaugh, C. W., & R. K. Didham. 2004. The effect of introduced wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Hymenoptera: Vespidae) predation on the dispersive life history stages of beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp., Homoptera: Margarodidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 91–101.

[WW96] Wheeler, A. G., Jr, & S. W. Wilson. 1996. Planthoppers of pitch pine and scrub oak in pine barrens communities (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 100–108.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

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