Bog saxifrage Saxifraga hirculus, photographed by Rolf Stange.

Belongs within: Saxifragaceae.

Saxifraga, the saxifrages, is a large genus of herbaceous plants found mostly in northern temperate and arctic regions. Most species have leaves distributed along the flowering stem; species with leaves growing as a basal rosette have recently been separated as the genus Micranthes. The strawberry-geranium S. stolonifera of eastern Asia has a branched caudex that generally produces conspicuous stolons (Hickman 1993).

Characters (from Hickman 1993): Plant generally more or less hairy, often glandular; caudex or rhizome generally not woody, generally scaly. Leaf blade oblanceolate to round, base tapered to reniform, margin entire or toothed. Inflorescence with one to many flowers; bracts scale-like. Flower with hypanthium free or more or less fused to ovary; petals sometimes spotted; stamens 10, filaments generally flat; pistil 1 (chambers 2, placentas 2, axile) or 2 (each with 1 chamber, 1 marginal placenta), ovary superior to more or less inferior (sometimes more superior in fruit), styles 2, free throughout. Fruit a capsule or 2 follicles.

    |--S. sect. SaxifragaBGS05 [incl. Zahlbrucknera Rchb. 1832BGS05, KC01]
    |    `--*S. granulataBGS05
    |--S. sect. Ciliatae [incl. S. sect. Hirculus]WO88
    |    |--S. amabilis Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987WO88
    |    |--S. aristulataWO88
    |    |--S. brachypodaWO88
    |    |    |--S. b. var. brachypodaWO88
    |    |    `--S. b. var. fimbriataWO88
    |    |--S. brunonisWO88
    |    |--S. chumbiensisWO88
    |    |--S. cordigeraWO88
    |    |--S. diversifoliaWO88
    |    |--S. englerianaWO88
    |    |--S. glabricaulisWO88
    |    |--S. harai Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987WO88
    |    |--S. hirculusWO88
    |    |--S. hispidulaWO88
    |    |--S. hookeriWO88
    |    |--S. jacquemontianaWO88
    |    |--S. lepidaWO88
    |    |--S. lychnitisWO88
    |    |--S. mallae Ohba & Wakabayashi 1987WO88
    |    |--S. microphyllaWO88
    |    |--S. montanellaWO88
    |    |--S. moorcroftianaWO88
    |    |--S. nakaoiWO88
    |    |--S. nigroglandulosaWO88
    |    |--S. palpebrataWO88
    |    |--S. parnassifoliaWO88
    |    |--S. piliferaWO88
    |    |--S. saginoidesWO88
    |    |--S. sikkimensisWO88
    |    |--S. sphaeradenaWO88
    |    |    |--S. s. ssp. sphaeradenaWO88
    |    |    `--S. s. ssp. dhwojiiWO88
    |    `--S. strigosaWO88
    `--S. sect. Porophyllum [incl. S. sect. Kabschia]WO88
         |--S. afghanicaWO88
         |--S. andersoniiWO88
         |--S. hypostomaWO88
         |--S. subsessilifloraWO88
         `--S. williamsiiWO88
Saxifraga incertae sedis:
  S. adscendensC55b
  S. affinisC55b
  S. aizoidesA16
  S. aizoonC55a
  S. ajugaefoliaC55a
  S. alboffianaD03
  S. apricaH93
  S. asarifoliaO88
  S. bicuspidataD03
  S. bryoidesC55a
  S. bryophoraH93
  S. bulbiferaH91
  S. caesiaPS98
  S. californica [incl. S. fallax]H93
  S. caveanaO88
  S. cernuaC55b
  S. cespitosa [incl. S. cespitosa var. emarginata]H93
  S. consanguineaO88
  S. contrariaO88
  S. controversaC55a
  S. cordillerarumD03
    |--S. c. var. cordillerarumD03
    `--S. c. var. magellanicaD03
  S. corymbosaH09
  S. cotyledonC55b
  S. debilisH93
  S. elegansC55b
  S. ellipticaO88
  S. eriophoraM69
  S. eschscholtziaYY22
  S. excellensO88
  S. ferrugineaH93
  S. georgeiO88
  S. geumC55b
  S. granuliferaO88
  S. hemisphaericaO88
  S. hirculoidesO88
  S. hirsutaC55b
  S. hirtaC55b
  S. howelliiH93
  S. humilisO88
  S. integrifoliaNDA05
  S. kingianaO88
  S. kumaunensisO88
  S. lamninamensisO88
  S. latifloraO88
  S. llonakhensisO88
  S. lowndesiiO88
  S. macrostigmaYY22
  S. marshalliiH93
  S. melanocentraO88
  S. mertensiana Bong. 1832CD07
  S. miraO88
  S. montanaO88
    |--S. m. f. montanaO88
    `--S. m. f. rubraO88
  S. mucronulataO88
    |--S. m. ssp. mucronulataO88
    `--S. m. ssp. sikkimensisO88
  S. mutataH09
    |--S. m. ssp. mutataH09
    `--S. m. ssp. demissaH09
  S. namdoensisO88
  S. nanellaO88
  S. neopropaguliferaO88
  S. nidificaH93
    |--S. n. var. nidificaH93
    `--S. n. var. claytoniifoliaH93
  S. nutansO88
  S. nuttalliiH93
  S. odontoloma [incl. S. aestivalis]H93
  S. oppositifoliaYY22
  S. oreganaH93
  S. paniculataS96
  S. parvaO88
  S. pensylvanicaH93
  S. perpusillaO88
  S. pseudo-pallidaO88
  S. pulvinariaO88
  S. punctulataO88
  S. rhodopetalaO88
  S. rivularisH93
  S. rolwalingensisO88
  S. rosaceaM-JT30
  S. rufidula [incl. S. aequidentata]H93
  S. sibiricaO88
  S. staintoniiO88
  S. stella-aureaO88
    |--S. s. var. stella-aureaO88
    `--S. s. var. polyadenaO88
  S. stenophyllaO88
    |--S. s. ssp. stenophyllaO88
    `--S. s. ssp. hoffmeisteriO88
  S. stolitzkaeO88
  S. stolonifera [incl. S. sarmentosa]H93
  S. tanguticaO88
  S. tentaculataO88
  S. tolmieiH93
  S. tricuspidataH44
  S. umbrosaC55b
  S. virginiensisJ23
  S. zimmermanniiO88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A16] Alexander, C. P. 1916. New or little-known crane-flies from the United States and Canada: Tipulidae, Diptera, Part 2. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (3): 458–514, pls 16–21.

[BGS05] Banfi, E., G. Galasso & A. Soldano. 2005. Notes on systematics and taxonomy for the Italian vascular flora. 1. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat. Museo Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 146 (2): 219–244.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[H44] Hammer, M. 1944. Studies on the oribatids and collemboles of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland 141 (3): 1–210.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[M-JT30] Marsden-Jones, E. M., & W. B. Turrill. 1930. Hybridization in certain genera of the British flora. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 36.

[M69] Moran, R. 1969. Twelve new dicots from Baja California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 15 (17): 265–295.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the “Maltese mushroom” Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PS98] Prosser, F., & S. Scortegagna. 1998. Primula recubariensis, a new species of Primula sect. Auricula Duby endemic to the SE Prealps, Italy. Willdenowia 28: 27–46.

[S96] Schatz, H. 1996. Oribatid mites (Oribatida) in alpine dry meadows (Austria, central Alps). In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 633–635. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[WO88] Wakabayashi, M., & H. Ohba. 1988. Cytotaxonomic study of the Himalayan Saxifraga. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 71–90.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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