Saxifragales

 American sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua, from here.

Belongs within: Gunneridae.
Contains: Hamamelidaceae.

The Saxifragales are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular analyses. Members of the clade are morphologically very diverse including both herbaceous taxa (e.g. Saxifragaceae, Crassulaceae) and the wind-pollinated hamamelid taxa (e.g. Hamamelidaceae, Altingiaceae). The Altingiaceae are wind-pollinated trees found in Asia and North America, of which the American sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua is a widely grown ornamental.

<==Saxifragales [Hamamelidales, Hamamelidineae]APG16
    |--CercidiphyllaceaeNDA05
    |    |--Cercidiphyllum japonicumWM09
    |    |--Cercidiphylloxylon kadanense Prakash et al. 1971 [=C. kadanende]CBH93
    |    |--JoffreaCBH93
    |    |--NyssidiumCBH93
    |    `--Cercidiphyllites brevicolpatusCBH93
    `--+--HamamelidaceaeNDA05
       `--+--+--Daphniphyllum [Daphniphyllaceae, Daphniphyllales]NDA05
          |  |    |--D. glaucescensB81
          |  |    |--D. gracile Gage 1918 [incl. D. papuanum Hallier 1918]B81
          |  |    |    |--D. g. var. gracileB81
          |  |    |    `--D. g. var. tuberculatum Huang 1966B81
          |  |    |--D. himalenseSN88
          |  |    |--D. macropodumMH98
          |  |    `--D. protomacropodumCBH93
          |  `--+--Medusandra [Medusandraceae, Medusandrales]XR12
          |     `--+--PeridiscaceaeT00
          |        |    |--Peridiscus lucidusNDA05
          |        |    `--WhittoniaT00
          |        `--SoyauxiaXR12
          |             |--S. floribundaXR12
          |             `--S. talbotiiXR12
          `--+--MicroaltingiaPI-BW04
             `--Altingiaceae [Altingioideae, Liquidambaroideae]NDA05
                  |--Altingia excelsaNDA05
                  |--SemiliquidambarPI-BW04
                  |--Evacarpa polyspermaPI-BW04
                  |--Steinhauera subglobosa Presl 1838PI-BW04
                  |--AmbaroxylonPI-BW04
                  |--LiquidambaroxylonPI-BW04
                  `--Liquidambar [=L. sect. Liquidambar]PI-BW04
                       |  i. s.: L. pachyphyllumPI-BW04
                       |--+--L. (sect. Cathayambar) formosanaPI-BW04 [incl. L. maximowicziiLO98]
                       |  `--+--L. acalycinaPI-BW04
                       |     `--L. changii Pigg, Ickert-Bond & Wen 2004PI-BW04
                       `--+--L. orientalisPI-BW04
                          `--+--*L. styraciflua Linnaeus 1753PI-BW04, CD07
                             |    |--L. s. var. styracifluaPI-BW04
                             |    `--L. s. var. mexicanaPI-BW04
                             `--L. macrocarpaPI-BW04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[B81] Barker, W. R. 1981. Daphniphyllaceae. In: Henty, E. E. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 2 pp. 34–37. Melbourne University Press.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[LO98] Lack, H. W., & H. Ohba. 1998. Die Xylothek des Chikusai Kato. Willdenowia 28: 263–276.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the “Maltese mushroom” Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[PI-BW04] Pigg, K. B., S. M. Ickert-Bond & J. Wen. 2004. Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications. American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 499–509.

[SN88] Suzuki, M., & S. Noshiro. 1988. Wood structure of Himalayan plants. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 341–379.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

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