Scaphites sp., copyright DanielCD.

Belongs within: Stephanocerataceae.
Contains: Scaphites.

The Scaphitaceae are a group of heteromorphic ammonites known from the Cretaceous, characterised by a lengthening of the saddle between lobes L and U in the sutures. Members of this group have an open-coiled shell as in the early genus Hamites, or an involute phragmocone with an uncoiled hook-shaped living chamber as in the later Scaphitidae. The Albian Eoscaphites provides a link between the two forms with an open first spiral followed by a closely coiled second spiral (Wiedmann 1969).

<==Scaphitidae [Scaphitaceae, Scaphitoidea]EK02
    |--Otoscaphitinae [Worthoceratidae]WCH96
    |    |--Eorhaeboceras Alabushev 1989WCH96
    |    |    `--*E. derivatum Alabushev 1989WCH96
    |    |--Worthoceras Adkins 1928WCH96
    |    |    |--*W. platydorsum (Scott 1924) [=Macroscaphites platydorsus]WCH96
    |    |    |--W. gibbosumK79
    |    |    `--W. vermiculusWCH96
    |    `--Yezoites Yabe 1910 [incl. Hyposcaphites Wiedmann 1965, Otoscaphites Wright 1953]WCH96
    |         |--*Y. perrini (Anderson 1902) [=Scaphites perrini]WCH96
    |         |--Y. bladenensis (Schlüter 1871) [=Ammonites bladenensis, *Otoscaphites bladenensis]WCH96
    |         |--Y. puerculusTLY03 [=Otoscaphites puerculusK81]
    |         |--Y. seabeensisWCH96
    |         `--Y. stephanoceroides (Yabe 1909) [=Scaphites stephanoceroides, *Hyposcaphites stephanoceroides]WCH96
         |  i. s.: Desmoscaphites Reeside 1927WCH96
         |           `--*D. bassleri Reeside 1927WCH96
         |         Argentoscaphites Blasco de Nullo, Nullo & Proserpio 1980WCH96
         |           `--*A. mutans Blasco de Nullo, Nullo & Proserpio 1980WCH96
         |         Pteroscaphites Wright 1953WCH96
         |           `--*P. auriculatus (Cobban 1952) [=Scaphites auriculatus]WCH96
         |         Hoploscaphites Nowak 1911 [incl. Jeletzkytes Riccardi 1983, Mesoscaphites Atabekian 1979 (n. n.)]WCH96
         |           |--*H. constrictus (Sowerby 1817) [=Scaphites constrictus]WCH96
         |           |    |--H. c. constrictusP93
         |           |    `--H. c. crassusP93
         |           |--H. elatensis (Lewy 1969) [=Scaphites (Hoploscaphites) elatensis, *Mesoscaphites elatensis]WCH96
         |           |--‘Jeletzkytes’ nebrascensisHE05
         |           `--‘Scaphites (Ammonites)’ nodosus Owen 1852 [=*Jeletzkytes nodosus]WCH96
         |         Discoscaphites Meek 1870WCH96, EK02
         |           |  i. s.: D. abyssinusK79
         |           |         D. erucoideusK79
         |           |         D. mandensisK79
         |           |         D. nebrascensisK79
         |           |         D. roanensisK79
         |           |--D. (Discoscaphites)WCH96
         |           |    |--*D. (D.) conradi (Morton 1834) [=Ammonites conradi]WCH96
         |           |    `--D. (D.) cheyennensisWCH96
         |           `--D. (Trachyscaphites Cobban & Scott 1964)WCH96
         |                `--D. (*T.) redbirdensis (Cobban & Scott 1964) [=*Trachyscaphites redbirdensis]WCH96
         |         Acanthoscaphites Nowak 1911WCH96
         |           `--*A. tridens (Kner 1850) [=Scaphites tridens]WCH96
         |                |--A. t. tridensWCH96
         |                `--A. t. trispinosusWCH96
         |         Ponteixites Warren 1934WCH96
         |           `--*P. robustus Warren 1934WCH96
         |         Indoscaphites Spath 1953WCH96
         |           |--*I. cunliffei (Forbes 1846) [=Ammonites cunliffei]WCH96
         |           `--I. pavana [=Scaphites (Indoscaphites) pavana]W69
         |         Parabinneyites Leanza 1964 [=Patagoniceras Leanza 1963 non Wetzel 1960]WCH96
         |           `--*P. paynensis (Favre 1908) [=Leopoldia paynensis, *Patagoniceras paynense]WCH96
         |--Clioscaphites Cobban 1952WCH96
         |    |--*C. montanensis Cobban 1952WCH96
         |    |--C. choteauensisK79
         |    |--C. novimexicanusK79
         |    |--C. saxitonianusK79
         |    `--C. vermiformisTLY03
         `--+--Eoscaphites Breistroffer 1947W69, WCH96
            |    |--*E. circularis (Sowerby 1836) [=Ammonites circularis]WCH96
            |    `--E. subcircularisW69
               |--Rhaeboceras Meek 1876W69, WCH96
               |    `--*R. halli (Meek 1876) [=Phylloceras halli, Ammonites halli Meek & Hayden 1857 (n. n.)]WCH96
               `--Haresiceras Reeside 1927W69, WCH96
                    |  i. s.: H. montanaenseK79
                    |         H. natronenseK79
                    |--*H. (Haresiceras) placentiforme Reeside 1927WCH96
                    `--H. (Mancosiceras Cobban 1964)WCH96
                         `--H. (*M.) mancosense Reeside 1927) [=Puzosia (Latidorsella) mancosensis]WCH96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[EK02] Engeser, T., & H. Keupp. 2002. Phylogeny of the aptychi-possessing Neoammonoidea (Aptychophora nov., Cephalopoda). Lethaia 35: 79–96.

[HE05] Hoganson, J. W., & J. M. Erickson. 2005. A new species of Ischyodus (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Callorhynchidae) from Upper Maastrichtian shallow marine facies of the Fox Hills and Hell Creek Formations, Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA. Palaeontology 48: 709–721.

[K79] Kauffman, E. G. 1979. Cretaceous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A418–A487. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[K81] Klinger, H. C. 1981. Speculation on buoyancy control and ecology in some heteromorph ammonites. In: House, M. R., & J. R. Senior (eds) The Ammonoidea: The evolution, classification, mode of life and geological usefulness of a major fossil group pp. 337–355. Academic Press.

[P93] Page, K. N. 1993. Mollusca: Cephalopoda (Ammonoidea: Phylloceratina, Lytoceratina, Ammonitina and Ancyloceratina). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 213–227. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TLY03] Tanabe, K., N. H. Landman & Y. Yoshioka. 2003. Intra- and interspecific variation in the early internal shell features of some Cretaceous ammonoids. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 876–887.

[W69] Wiedmann, J. 1969. The heteromorphs and ammonoid extinction. Biological Reviews 44: 563–602.

[WCH96] Wright, C. W., J. H. Calloman & M. K. Howarth. 1996. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt L. Mollusca 4, revised vol. 4. Cretaceous Ammonoidea. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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