Sciurini

 Red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris, photographed by Tomi Tapio K.

Belongs within: Sciuridae.
Contains: Sciurus prevostii.

The Sciurini is a group of tree squirrels found in Eurasia and the Americas, particularly in more temperate regions. They are united by the shape of the baculum, the penis bone, as well as by molecular data (Mercer & Roth 2003). The majority of species are placed in the genus Sciurus, which includes the familiar red squirrel S. vulgaris of Eurasia and the grey squirrel S. carolinensis of North America. Microsciurus is a Neotropical rain forest genus of smaller squirrels with grey or brown backs and white bellies.

<==Sciurini
    |--+--Rheithrosciurus macrotisFS15
    |  `--+--+--SyntheosciurusFS15
    |     |  |    |--S. brochusFS15
    |     |  |    `--S. poasensisBP87
    |     |  `--+--‘Sciurus’ stramineusFS15
    |     |     |    |--S. s. stramineus [incl. Macroxus fraseri]T00
    |     |     |    |--S. s. guayanus Thomas 1900T00
    |     |     |    `--S. s. nebouxiiT00
    |     |     `--+--‘Sciurus’ ignitusFS15
    |     |        `--Microsciurus [Microsciurini]FS15
    |     |             |  i. s.: M. isthmius [=Sciurus (Microsciurus) isthmius]T01b
    |     |             |         M. otinus (Thomas 1901) [=Sciurus (Microsciurus) otinus]T01b
    |     |             |         M. similis (Nels. 1899) [=Sciurus (Microsciurus) similis]T01b
    |     |             |--M. alfariFS15
    |     |             `--+--M. santanderensisFS15
    |     |                `--+--M. flaviventerFS15
    |     |                   `--M. mimulusFS15
    |     `--+--‘Sciurus’ abertiFS15
    |        |    |--S. a. abertiBP87
    |        |    `--S. a. kaibabensisBP87
    |        `--+--‘Sciurus’ gilvigularisFS15
    |           `--+--‘Sciurus’ anomalusFS15
    |              `--+--‘Sciurus’ variegatoidesFS15
    |                 `--+--‘Sciurus’ flammiferFS15
    |                    `--+--‘Sciurus’ granatensisFS15
    |                       `--+--‘Sciurus’ carolinensis Gmelin 1788FS15, K92
    |                          |    |--S. c. carolinensisB75
    |                          |    `--S. c. pennsylvanicus Ord in Guthrie 1815 [=S. pennsylvanica]B75
    |                          `--‘Sciurus’ niger Linnaeus 1758FS15, K92
    |                               |--S. n. nigerKC05
    |                               |--S. n. avicenniaKC05
    |                               |--S. n. rufiventer Geoffroy St.-Hilaire 1803B75
    |                               |--S. n. shermaniBP87
    |                               `--S. n. vulpinusBP87
    `--Sciurus Linnaeus 1758FS15, P04
         |  i. s.: S. americanusT99
         |         S. andrewsii Bonhote 1901B01e
         |         S. annulatusW42
         |         S. atricapillus Schlegel 1863B01b
         |         S. atrodorsalis Gray 1842 [incl. S. hyperythrus Blyth 1855]P66
         |         S. baluensis Bonhote 1901B01b
         |           |--S. b. baluensisB01b
         |           `--S. b. suffusus Bonhote 1901B01b
         |         S. caniceps Gray 1842 [incl. S. chrysonotus Blyth 1847]B01c
         |         S. capistratusJ23
         |         S. caroli Bonhote 1901B01b
         |           |--S. c. caroliB01b
         |           `--S. c. griseicauda Bonhote 1901B01b
         |         S. castaneoventris Gray 1842B01a
         |           |--S. c. castaneoventrisB01a
         |           |--S. c. gordoni Anders 1871B01a
         |           |--S. c. griseopectus Bluth 1847 [incl. S. gordoni var. intermedia Anders 1879]B01a
         |           `--S. c. ningpoensis Bonhote 1901B01a
         |         ‘Macroxus’ chinensisB01a
         |         S. chrysurus Puch. 1845T01b
         |         S. cinereus Linnaeus 1758L58 [=S. niger cinereusBP87]
         |         S. concolor Blyth 1855 [=S. caniceps concolor; incl. Macroxus inornatus Gray 1867]B01c
         |         S. epomophorus Bonhote 1901B01c
         |           |--S. e. epomophorusB01c
         |           `--S. e. davisoni Bonhote 1901B01c
         |         S. erythraeus Pallas 1778B01a
         |           |--S. e. erythraeusB01a
         |           |--S. e. bhutanensis Bonhote 1901B01a
         |           |--S. e. erythrogaster Blyth 1842 [=Macroxus erythrogaster]B01a
         |           |--S. e. punctatissimus Gray 1867B01a
         |           `--S. e. sladeni Anders 1871B01a
         |         S. erythrogenys Waterhouse 1842W42
         |         S. erythromelas Temm. 1853B01b
         |         S. finlaysoniB01e
         |         S. flavus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. floweri Bonhote 1901B01e
         |         S. getulus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. griseimanus M.-Edw. 1867 (see below for synonymy)B01c
         |         S. griseogenaT01b
         |           |--S. g. griseogenaT01b
         |           `--S. g. meridensis Thomas 1901T01b
         |         S. hippurusP66
         |           |--S. h. hippurusB01b
         |           `--S. h. grayi Bonhote 1901 (see below for synonymy)B01b
         |         S. indicusB00b
         |         S. ingrami Thomas 1901T01c
         |         S. irroratusT01c
         |         S. lautensis Miller 1901B01d
         |         S. leucogasterT01c
         |         S. lokriahB01a
         |         S. lutescens Miller 1901B01d
         |         S. macclellandi Horsf. 1839B00a
         |           |--S. m. macclellandi [incl. S. pembertoni]B00a
         |           |--S. m. barbeiB00a
         |           |--S. m. formosanus Bonhote 1900B00a
         |           |--S. m. leucotis (Temminck 1853) [=Tamias leucotis]B00a
         |           |--S. m. manipurensis Bonhote 1900B00a
         |           |--S. m. maritimus Bonhote 1900B00a
         |           |--S. m. monticolus Bonhote 1900B00a
         |           |--S. m. rodolphi Milne-Edwards 1867B00a
         |           `--S. m. swinhoei Milne-Edwards 1874B00a
         |         S. macroura Say in James 1823J23
         |         S. maltei Dahlmann 2001P04
         |         S. melanogaster Thos 1895B01a
         |         S. mimellus Miller 1900B01b
         |         S. mimiculus Miller 1900B01b
         |         S. nigrovittatus Horsfield 1824B01d
         |           |--S. n. nigrovittatusB01d
         |           |--S. n. klossii Miller 1900B01d
         |           `--S. n. orestes Thos. 1895 [=S. notatus orestes]B01d
         |         S. notatus Bodd. 1785B01d
         |           |--S. n. notatus (see below for synonymy)B01d
         |           `--S. n. albescens Bonhote 1901B01d
         |         S. palmarumG42
         |         S. piceus Peters 1866P66
         |         S. poliopusG69
         |           |--S. p. poliopusG69
         |           `--S. p. hernandeziG69
         |         S. prevostiiB01b
         |         S. pygerythrus Geoff. St.-Hil. 1832 [=S. caniceps pygerythrus; incl. S. blanfordi Blyth 1862]B01c
         |           |--S. p. pygerythrusB01c
         |           `--S. p. phayrei Blyth 1848 [=S. caniceps phayrei]B01c
         |         S. relictusT23
         |         S. rubidiventris Miller 1901B01d
         |         S. rufobrachiatus Waterhouse 1842W42
         |         S. rufoniger Gray 1842 [=S. rufonigra]B01b
         |           |--S. r. rufonigerB01b
         |           `--S. r. pluto (Gray 1867) [=Macroxus pluto]B01b
         |         S. rutiliventris Miller 1901B01d
         |         S. schlegeli Gray 1867B01b
         |         S. seraiae Miller 1901B01d
         |         S. socialisG69
         |           |--S. s. socialisG69
         |           |--S. s. cocosG69
         |           `--S. s. littoralisG69
         |         S. stangeri Waterhouse 1842W42
         |         S. striatus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. styani Thos 1894B01a
         |         S. syriacusT66
         |         S. thaiwanensis Bonhote 1901B01a
         |           |--S. t. thaiwanensisB01a
         |           |--S. t. centralis Bonhote 1901B01a
         |           `--S. t. roberti Bonhote 1901B01a
         |         S. vittatus Raffles 1822 [=Macroxus vittatus]B01d
         |           |--S. v. vittatus (see below for synonymy)B01d
         |           |--S. v. abbotti Miller 1900B01d
         |           |--S. v. anambensis Miller 1900B01d
         |           |--S. v. dulitensis Bonhote 1901B01d
         |           `--S. v. tenuirostris Miller 1900B01d
         |         S. volans Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. warthae Sulimski 1964P04
         |--S. deppeiFS15
         `--+--S. nayaritensis Allen 1890FS15, MB86
            |    |--S. n. nayaritensisKC05
            |    `--S. n. chiricahuaeKC05
            `--+--S. pucheraniiFS15
               `--+--S. yucatanensisFS15
                  `--+--S. vulgaris Linnaeus 1758FS15, L58
                     |    |--S. v. vulgarisM76
                     |    `--S. v. orientis Thomas 1906M76
                     `--+--S. aestuansFS15
                        |    |--S. a. aestuansT01a
                        |    `--S. a. cuscinusT01a
                        `--+--S. pyrrhinusFS15
                           `--+--S. aureogasterFS15
                              |    |--S. a. aureogasterMB86
                              |    `--S. a. socialis Wagner 1837MB86
                              `--+--S. lis Temminck 1845FS15, I92
                                 `--+--S. sanborniFS15
                                    `--+--S. colliaeiFS15
                                       `--+--S. richmondiFS15
                                          `--+--S. alleniFS15
                                             `--+--S. griseus Ord 1818FS15, K92
                                                `--+--S. oculatusFS15
                                                   `--+--S. arizonensisFS15
                                                      `--+--S. igniventrisFS15
                                                         `--S. spadiceusFS15

Sciurus griseimanus M.-Edw. 1867 [=S. caniceps griseimanus, S. pygerythrus var. griseimanus; incl. S. leucopus Gray 1867]B01c

Sciurus hippurus grayi Bonhote 1901 [=S. hippurus borneoensis Gray 1867 non S. prevostii var. borneoensis Müller & Schlegel 1839–1844]B01b

Sciurus notatus notatus Bodd. 1785 [incl. S. badging Kerr 1792, S. bilineatus Desm. 1817, S. gingianus Shaw 1801, S. plantani Ljung 1801]B01d

Sciurus vittatus vittatus Raffles 1822 [incl. S. bivittatus Desm. 1822, S. notatus miniatus Miller 1900, Macroxus toupai Lesson 1827]B01d

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B00a] Bonhote, J. L. 1900a. On squirrels of the Sciurus macclellandi group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 50–54.

[B00b] Bonhote, J. L. 1900b. On the squirrels of the Ratufa (Sciurus) bicolor group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 490–499.

[B01a] Bonhote, J. L. 1901a. On the squirrels of the Sciurus erythraeus group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 160–167.

[B01b] Bonhote, J. L. 1901b. On the squirrels of the Sciurus prevostii group. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 167–177.

[B01c] Bonhote, J. L. 1901c. On Sciurus caniceps and allied species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 270–275.

[B01d] Bonhote, J. L. 1901d. On Sciurus notatus and allied species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 444–455.

[B01e] Bonhote, J. L. 1901e. On two new species of squirrels from the East Indies. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 455–457.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G42] Gulliver, G. 1842. Observations on the muscular fibres of the oesophagus and heart in some of the vertebrate animals. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 63–72.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[KC05] Koprowski, J. L., & M. C. Corse. 2005. Time budgets, activity periods, and behavior of Mexican fox squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 947–952.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[P66] Peters, W. 1866. On some Mammalia collected by Capt. A. C. Beavan, C. M. Z. S., at Moulmein, Burmah. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 426–429.

[P04] Popov, V. V. 2004. Pliocene small mammals (Mammalia, Lipotyphla, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) from Muselievo (north Bulgaria). Geodiversitas 26 (3): 403–491.

[T99] Tandler, J. 1899. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Kopfarterien bei den Mammalia. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematische-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Wien 67: 677–784, pls 1–8.

[T00] Thomas, O. 1900. New South-American mammals. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 148–153.

[T01a] Thomas, O. 1901a. New mammals from Peru and Bolivia, with a list of those recorded from the Inambari River, upper Madre de Dios. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 178–190.

[T01b] Thomas, O. 1901b. New South-American Sciuri, Heteromys, Cavia, and Caluromys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 192–196.

[T01c] Thomas, O. 1901c. New species of Saccopteryx, Sciurus, Rhipidomys, and Tatu from South America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 366–371.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84–93.

[T23] Troxell, E. L. 1923. Diplolophus, a new genus of rodents. American Journal of Science 5: 157–159.

[W42] Waterhouse, G. R. 1842. Descriptions of new species of quadrupeds collected by Mr. Fraser at Fernando Po. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 124–130.

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