Sclerotiniaceae

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on bean Phaseolus vulgaris, copyright Rasbak.

Belongs within: Sordariomyceta.

The Sclerotiniaceae are a group of fungi that are pathogenic or saprobic on various parts of plants, particularly seeds and fruits (Kirk et al. 2001).

Characters (from Kirk et al. 2001): Stromata present, as well-differentiated sclerotia or mummified host tissue. Ascomata apothecial, often long-stalked, usually brown, cupulate, without hairs, the stalk often darker. Interascal tissue of simple paraphyses. Asci usually with a J+ apical ring. Ascospores large or small, ellipsoidal, usually aseptate, hyaline or pale brown, often more or less longitudinally symmetrical. Anamorphs often prominent, hyphomycetous, spermatial or disseminative.

<==Sclerotiniaceae
|--Monilinia Honey 1928SS09, KC01 (see below for synonymy)
| |--M. fructicolaJK06
| |--M. fructigenaSL02 [=Monilia fructigenaKD83]
| `--M. laxaHM17
`--+--Botryotinia Whetzel 1945SS09, KC01 [incl. Amphobotrys Hennebert 1973KC01]
| `--B. fuckelianaSS09
`--Sclerotinia Fuckel 1870 (nom. cons.)SS09, KC01 [incl. Whetzelinia Korf & Dumont 1972 (nom. rej.)KC01]
|--S. borealisKC01
|--S. bulborumKC01
|--S. fructicolaKC01
|--S. fructigenaKC01
|--S. homeocarpaKC01
|--S. libertianaKC01
|--S. minorSWW95
|--S. narcissicolaL86
|--S. sclerotiorumSL02
`--S. trifoliorumSWW95

Sclerotiniaceae incertae sedis:
Asterocalyx Höhn. 1912KC01
Ciboria Fuckel 1870 [incl. Ciboriopsis Dennis 1962, Moellerodiscus Henn. 1902, Piceomphale Svrček 1957]KC01
Ciborinia Whetzel 1945KC01
Cudoniopsis Speg. 1925KC01
Dumontinia Kohn 1979KC01
Elliottinia Kohn 1979KC01
Grovesinia Cline, Crane & Cline 1983 [incl. Cristulariella Höhn. 1916]KC01
Lambertellinia Korf & Lizoň 1993KC01
Martininia Dumont & Korf 1970 [=Martinia Whetzel 1942 nec M’Coy 1844 (ICZN) nec Vaniot 1903]KC01
Mitrulinia Spooner 1987KC01
Moserella Pöder & Scheuer 1994KC01
Myriosclerotinia Buchw. 1947KC01
Ovulinia Weiss 1940 [incl. Ovulitis Buchw. 1970]KC01
`--O. azaleaeDAF07
Phaeosclerotinia Hori 1916KC01
Poculinia Spooner 1987KC01
Pseudociboria Kanouse 1944KC01
Pycnopeziza White & Whetzel 1938 (see below for synonymy)KC01
Sclerocrana Samuels & Kohn 1987KC01
Seaverinia Whetzel 1945 [incl. Verrucobotrys Hennebert 1973]KC01
Septotinia Whetzel ex Groves & Elliott 1961 [incl. Septotis Buchw. ex Arx 1970]KC01
Streptotinia Whetzel 1945 [incl. Streptobotrys Hennebert 1973]KC01
|--'Streptobotrys’ arisaematisD03
|--'Streptobotrys’ caulophylliiD03
`--'Streptobotrys’ streptothrixD03
Stromatinia (Boud.) Boud. 1907KC01
`--S. gladioliKC01
Torrendiella Boud. & Torrend 1911 [incl. Zoellneria Velen. 1934]KC01
Valdensinia Peyronel 1953 [incl. Asterobolus Redhead & Perrin 1972, Valdensia Peyronel 1923]KC01
EncoelioideaeEB03
|--Cenangium Fr. 1818E99, KC01 [incl. Cenangina Höhn. 1909KC01, Clithris (Fr.) Karst. 1870KC01]
| `--C. ferruginosum [incl. C. abietis]KC01
|--Encoelia (Fr.) Karst. 1871 (nom. cons.) (see below for synonymy)KC01
| |--E. fascicularisEB03
| `--E. fimbriataLS03
|--Cordierites Montagne 1840EB03 (see below for synonymy)
| |--*Diplocarpa’ bloxamiiEB03
| `--*Ionomidotis’ irregularis [incl. *Poloniodiscus fischeri Svrcùek & Kubicùka 1967]EB03
`--Austrocenangium Gamundí 1997EB03
|--A. australe (Spegazzini) Gamundí 1997EB03
`--A. nanum (Cash) Gamundí 1997EB03
Botryophialophora Linder 1944 [incl. Myrioconium Syd. 1912 non Fr. 1823]KC01
Botrytis Micheli ex Pers. 1794 (see below for synonymy)KC01
|--B. acladaSL02
|--B. alliiKC01
|--B. anthophilaKC01
|--B. bassianaF89
|--B. cinereaKC01
|--B. fabaeKC01
|--B. galanthinaKC01
|--‘Phymatotrichum’ omnivorumKC01
|--B. paeoniaeKC01
`--B. tulipaeKC01

Botrytis Micheli ex Pers. 1794 [incl. Cephalocladium Rchb. 1828, Coccotrichum Link 1824, Cristularia (Sacc.) Costantin 1888, Haplaria Link 1809, Penicillium Fr. 1832 non Link 1809, Phymatotrichum Bonord. 1851, Pleurobotrya, Polyactis Link 1809, Pterodinia Chevall. 1837]KC01

Cordierites Montagne 1840EB03 [incl. Ameghiniella Spegazzini 1887EB03, Diplocarpa Massee 1895EB03, Ionomidotis Durand 1923EB03, Phyllomyces Lloyd 1921KC01, Poloniodiscus Svrcùek & Kubicùka 1967EB03]

Encoelia (Fr.) Karst. 1871 (nom. cons.) [incl. Phaeangella (Sacc.) Massee 1895, Phibalis Wallr. 1833 (nom. rej.)]KC01

Monilinia Honey 1928SS09, KC01 [incl. Epochnium Link 1809KC01, Halobyssus Zukal 1893KC01, Monilia Bonord. 1851 (nom. cons.)KC01; Moniliaceae]

Pycnopeziza White & Whetzel 1938 [incl. Acarosporium Bubák & Vleugel ex Bubák 1911, Chaetalysis Peyronel 1922, Ciliosira Syd. 1942]KC01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[D03] David, J. C. 2003. Orthographic conundrums: the problem of –opsis and -botrys. Taxon 52: 603–608.

[DAF07] Department of Agriculture and Food. 2007. Common Seasonal Pests. State of Western Australia.

[E99] Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. Myconet 2: 1–41.

[EB03] Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580-3623. Myconet 9: 91–103.

[F89] Fallou, J. 1889. Une note sur une espèce de bombycide, le Lasiocampa otus, dont il montre le papillon, la chenille et le cocon. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: lvii–lviii.

[HM17] Hongsanan, S., S. S. N. Maharachchikumbura, K. D. Hyde, M. C. Samarakoon, R. Jeewon, Q. Zhao, A. M. Al-Sadi & A. H. Bahkali. 2017. An updated phylogeny of Sordariomycetes based on phylogenetic and molecular clock evidence. Fungal Diversity 84: 25–41.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O’Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O’Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818–822.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[KD83] Koç, N. K., & G. Défago. 1983. Studies on the host range of the hyperparasite Aphanocladium album. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 107: 214–218.

[LS03] Landvik, S., T. K. Schumacher, O. E. Eriksson & S. T. Moss. 2003. Morphology and ultrastructure of Neolecta species. Mycological Research 107 (9): 1021–1031.

[L86] Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): a morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 118 (S136): 1–517.

[SS09] Schoch, C. L., G.-H. Sung, F. López-Giráldez, J. P. Townsend, J. Miadlikowska, V. Hofstetter, B. Robbertse, P. B. Matheny, F. Kauff, Z. Wang, C. Gueidan, R. M. Andrie, K. Trippe, L. M. Ciufetti, A. Wynns, E. Fraker, B. P. Hodkinson, G. Bonito, J. Z. Groenewald, M. Arzanlou, G. S. de Hoog, P. W. Crous, D. Hewitt, D. H. Pfister, K. Peterson, M. Gryzenhout, M. J. Wingfield, A. Aptroot, S.-O. Suh, M. Blackwell, D. M. Hillis, G. W. Griffith, L. A. Castlebury, A. Y. Rossman, H. T. Lumbsch, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, A. Rauhut, P. Diederich, D. Ertz, D. M. Geiser, K. Hosaka, P. Inderbitzin, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, L. Mostert, K. O’Donnell, H. Sipman, J. D. Rogers, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Sugiyama, R. C. Summerbell, W. Untereiner, P. R. Johnston, S. Stenroos, A. Zuccaro, P. S. Dyer, P. D. Crittenden, M. S. Cole, K. Hansen, J. M. Trappe, R. Yahr, F. Lutzoni & J. W. Spatafora. 2009. The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits. Systematic Biology 58 (2): 224–239.

[SL02] Schweigkofler, W., K. Lopandic, O. Molnár & H. Prillinger. 2002. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships among Ascomycota with yeast phases using ribosomal DNA sequences and cell wall sugars. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 2: 1–17.

[SWW95] Seifert, K. A., B. D. Wingfield & M. J. Wingfield. 1995. A critique of DNA sequence analysis in the taxonomy of filamentous Ascomycetes and ascomycetous anamorphs. Canadian Journal of Botany 73 (Suppl. 1): S760–S767.

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