Lugworm Arenicola marina, copyright Malcolm Storey.

Belongs within: Annelida.

The Scolecida are a group of marine annelid worms united by the possession of parapodia with rami all alike, and two or more pairs of pygidial cirri. Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that this group is paraphyletic to the Echiura, spoon worms (Struck et al. 2007). Echiurans are sedentary, unsegmented worms that feed by means of a long, non-retractile, spatulate proboscis containing a ciliate gutter.

    |--+--+--Sternaspis [Sternaspidae]SS07
    |  |  |    `--S. scutata (Ranzani 1817)SS07
    |  |  `--Fauveliopsis [Fauveliopsidae]SS07
    |  |       `--F. scabra Hartman & Fauchald 1971SS07
    |  `--ScalibregmatidaeSS07
    |       |  i. s.: TravisiaSS07
    |       |           |--T. brevis Moore 1923SS07
    |       |           |--T. forbesii Johnston 1840SS07
    |       |           |--T. kerguelensisPG98
    |       |           `--T. pupaA99
    |       |--+--Polyphysia crassa (Öersted 1843)RP07
    |       |  `--Scalibregma inflatum Rathke 1843PE16, RP07
    |       `--+--Lipobranchius jeffreysii (McIntosh 1869)RP07
    |          `--HyboscolexRP07
    |               |--H. longisetaHS01
    |               |--H. pacificusHS01
    |               `--H. verrucosa Hartmann-Schröder 1979HG14
       |    |  i. s.: Capitellides teres Treadwell 1943H56
       |    |         Scyphoproctus ornatus Hartmann-Schröder 1979HG14
       |    |--+--NotomastusPE16
       |    |  |    |--N. (Clistomastus) broomensis Hartmann-Schröder 1979HG14
       |    |  |    |--N. latericeus Sars 1851RP07
       |    |  |    `--N. tenuis Moore 1909SS07
       |    |  `--DasybranchusRP07
       |    |       |--D. caducus (Grube 1846)RP07
       |    |       |--D. caudatusHK03
       |    |       `--D. rectus Treadwell 1901H56
       |    `--+--Barantolla lepte Hutchings 1974RP07
       |       |--CapitellaSS07
       |       |    |--C. capitata (Fabricius 1780)SS07
       |       |    `--C. teletaSRT18
       |       `--HeteromastusSS07
       |            |--H. filiformis (Claparede 1864)SS07
       |            `--H. similisMGV06
            |  i. s.: Euzonus Grube 1866H56
            |           |--E. (Euzonus)H56
            |           |    |--E. (E.) arcticusH56
            |           |    |--E. (E.) dillonensisH56
            |           |    |--E. (E.) ezoensisH56
            |           |    `--E. (E.) yasudaiH56
            |           `--E. (Thoracophelia)H56
            |                |--E. (T.) furciferaH56
            |                |--E. (T.) mucronata (Treadwell 1914) [=Ophelina mucronata]H56
            |                `--E. (T.) williamsiH56
            |--+--Lobochesis bibranchia Hutchings & Murray 1984RP07
            |  `--OpheliaPE16
            |       |--O. bicornis Savigny 1918RP07 [incl. O. radiataPP64]
            |       |--O. limacinaM62
            |       |--O. magna (Treadwell 1914) [=Ophelia magna]H56
            |       |--O. neglecta Schneider 1887M62
            |       |--O. rathkei McIntosh 1908RP07
            |       `--O. roscovensisPP64
            `--+--Ophelina acuminata Oersted 1843RP07
               `--+--Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin 1839)RP07 (see below for synonymy)
                       |--A. bilobata Hartmann-Schröder 1986RP07
                       |--A. brevis (Moore 1906)W01
                       |--A. broomensis Hartmann-Schröder 1979HG14
                       |--A. intermedia Fauvel 1901HG14
                       |--A. lanceolata Willey 1905HG14
                       |--A. maculata (Webster 1884) [=Ophelina maculata; incl. Ammotrypane bermudiensis Treadwell 1936]H56
                       `--A. polyophthalmaPP64

Polyophthalmus pictus (Dujardin 1839)RP07 [=Nais pictaH56; incl. P. incertus Treadwell 1936H56, P. papillatus Treadwell 1943H56]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[H56] Hartman, O. 1956. Polychaetous annelids erected by Treadwell, 1891 to 1948, together with a brief chronology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 109 (2): 239–310.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[HK03] Ho, J.-S., & I.-H. Kim. 2003. New clausiid copepods (Poecilostomatoida) associated with polychaetes of Korea, with cladistic analysis of the family Clausiidae. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (3): 568–581.

[HG14] Hutchings, P., C. Glasby, M. Capa & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: polychaetes (Annelida). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 133–159.

[MGV06] Mai, A. C. G., A. M. Garcia & J. P. Vieira. 2006. Ecologia alimentar do barrigudinho Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces: Cyprinodontiformes) no estuário da Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comunicações do Museo de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Serie Zoologia 19 (1): 3–18.

[M62] Monniot, F. 1962. Recherches sur les graviers a Amphioxus de la région de Banyuls-sur-Mer. Vie et Milieu 13: 231–322.

[PE16] Parry, L. A., G. D. Edgecombe, D. Eibye-Jacobsen & J. Vinther. 2016. The impact of fossil data on annelid phylogeny inferred from discrete morphological characters. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 283: 20161378.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PG98] Probert, P. K., & S. L. Grove. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28: 259–280.

[RP07] Rousset, V., F. Pleijel, G. W. Rouse, C. Erséus & M. E. Siddall. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of annelids. Cladistics 23: 41–63.

[SRT18] Schiffer, P. H., H. E. Robertson & M. J. Telford. 2018. Orthonectids are highly degenerate annelid worms. Current Biology 28: 1970–1974.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[W01] Williamson, D. I. 2001. Larval transfer and the origins of larvae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 131: 111–122.

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