Scombridae

Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares, copyright Elias Levy.

Belongs within: Scombrimorpharia.

The Scombridae, mackerels and tunas, are fast-swimming predatory fishes inhabiting the open ocean.

Characters (from Collette 2002): Streamlined form tapering to snout and tail, scales absent or very small, two dorsal fins, one spiny and one soft, 5–12 small finlets behind soft dorsal fin and behind anal fin, very slender caudal peduncle with two small keels at base, deeply forked or lunate caudal fin. Pectoral fins place high on body, with 19–36 rays; pelvic fins I, 5; vertebrae 31–64; hypural plate mostly covered by caudal fin rays; caudal fin rays supported by three to five centra.

<==Scombridae
    |  i. s.: RastrelligerM58
    |           |--R. brachysoma (Bleeker 1851) [=Scomber brachysoma]M58
    |           `--R. kanagurta (Cuvier 1829)M58 (see below for synonymy)
    |         Nesogrammus piersoni Evermann & Seale 1906JR10
    |--GasterochismaB96 [GasterochismatinaeC02, Gasterochismatini]
    |    `--G. melampusB96
    `--Scombrinae [Katsuwonidae]C02
         |  i. s.: Cybiosarda elegansG75
         |         Grammatorcynus [Grammatorcynini]P93
         |           |--G. bicarinatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) [=Thynnus bicarinatus]M58
         |           |--G. bilineatus (Rüppell 1836)MM09
         |           `--G. scomberoides Arambourg 1967P93
         |--ScombriniP93
         |    |--ScombrosardaP93
         |    |    |--S. decipiens (Casier 1966)P93
         |    |    `--S. turkmenica Danil’chenko 1968P93
         |    `--Scomber Linnaeus 1758ND13, L58
         |         |--S. amia Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         |--S. australasicus Cuvier 1831M58
         |         |--S. colias Gmelin 1789 [=Pneumatophorus colias]C02
         |         |--S. glaucus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         |--S. japonicus Houttuyn 1782 [incl. S. uam Thiollière 1857]M58
         |         |--S. kanaguntaP61
         |         |--S. pelagicus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         |--S. scombrus Linnaeus 1758C02
         |         `--S. thynnus Linnaeus 1758L58
         `--+--Scomberomorini [Scomberomoridae]C02
            |    |--Sawara niphoniaG75
            |    |--Indocybium semifasciatumG75
            |    |--SphyraenodusP93
            |    |    |--S. multidentatus Dartevelle & Casier 1959P93
            |    |    `--S. rupeliensis (Dollo & Storms 1888)F91
            |    |--CybiumM58
            |    |    |--C. guttatusP61
            |    |    `--C. queenslandicusG75
            |    |--LandanichthysP93
            |    |    |--L. lusitanicus Dartevelle & Casier 1949P93
            |    |    `--L. moutai Dartevelle & Casier 1949P93
            |    `--ScomberomorusND13
            |         |--S. cavalla (Cuvier 1829)C02
            |         |--S. commerson (Lacépède 1800)OC03, M58 [=Scomber commersonM58, Scomberomorus (Cybium) commersonM58]
            |         |--S. konamJR10
            |         |--S. maculatus (Mitchill 1815)C02
            |         |--S. niphoniusLN10
            |         |--S. regalis (Bloch 1793)C02
            |         `--S. tritorEA03
            `--+--SardiniP93
               |    |--Palaeothunnus parvidentatus Danil’chenko 1968P93
               |    `--SardaND13
               |         |--S. chiliensisG75
               |         |    |--S. c. chiliensisG75
               |         |    `--S. c. australisG75
               |         |--S. lineolataW81
               |         |--S. palaeocaena (Leriche 1909)P93
               |         `--S. sarda (Bloch 1793)C02
               `--Thunnini [Thunnidae]C02
                    |--Kishinoella tonggolG75
                    |--Neothunnus macropterus (Schlegel 1844) [=Thynnus macropterus]M58
                    |--Parathunnus mebachi (Kishinouye 1915) [=Thunnus mebachi; incl. P. sibi Nakamura 1954]M58
                    |--Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque 1810)C02 (see below for synonymy)
                    |--KatsuwonusC02
                    |    |--K. pelamis (Linnaeus 1758)C02 [=Scomber pelamisM58, Euthynnus pelamisM58]
                    |    `--K. vagansP62 (see below for synonymy)
                    |--GymnosardaM58
                    |    |--G. nuda (Günther 1860) [=Pelamys nuda]M58
                    |    `--G. unicolor (Rüppell 1836)MM09
                    |--AuxisC02
                    |    |--A. rochei (Risso 1810)C02
                    |    |    |--A. r. rocheiC02
                    |    |    `--A. r. eudoraxC02
                    |    `--A. thazard (Lacépède 1802) [=Scomber thazard; incl. S. taso Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831]M58
                    `--ThunnusND13
                         |--T. alalunga Bonnaterre 1788C02
                         |    |--T. a. alalungaG75
                         |    `--T. a. germoG75
                         |--T. albacares (Bonnaterre 1788)MM09
                         |--T. maccoyiB96
                         |--T. macropterusNM72
                         |--T. obesusC02
                         |--T. orientalis [=T. thynnus orientalis]C02
                         |--T. secundodorsalisD56
                         `--T. thynnus (Linnaeus 1758)C02

Euthynnus alletteratus (Rafinesque 1810)C02 [=Scomber alletteratusM58; incl. Thynnus thunnina Günther 1889M58]

Katsuwonus vagansP62 [incl. Thynnus affinis de Beaufort & Chapman 1951 non Guér. 1839 (not preoc. as in homonym. gen.)P62, M58, E. alletteratus affinisP62, M58]

Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier 1829)M58 [=Scomber kanagurtaM58; incl. S. chrysozonus Peters 1876M58, S. loo Lesson 1829M58, Rastrelliger looJR10, S. microlepidotus Meyer 1885M58, R. serventyiM58]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[C02] Collette, B. B. 2002. Mackerels. Family Scombridae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 516–536. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[EA03] Écoutin, J.-M., & J.-J. Albaret. 2003. Relation longueur-poids pour 52 espèces de poissons des estuaires et lagunes de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Cybium 27 (1): 3–9.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[JR10] Jordan, D. S., & R. E. Richardson. 1910. Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine archipelago. Bureau of Printing: Manila.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[LN10] Liu, J., & P. Ning. 2010. Species composition and faunal characteristics of fishes of the Yellow Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 42–43. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

[MM09] Moore, G., & S. Morrison. 2009. Fishes of three North West Shelf atolls of Western Australia: Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 221–255.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[NM72] Nair, R. V., & S. L. Mohan. 1972. The deep sea spined dog fish Centrophorus armatus (Gilchrist) (Selachii: Sualidae) from the east coast of India, with a note on its taxonomy. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 193–199.

[ND13] Near, T. J., A. Dornburg, R. I. Eytan, B. P. Keck, W. L. Smith, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, S. A. Price, F. T. Burbrink, M. Friedman & P. C. Wainwright. 2013. Phylogeny and tempo of diversification in the superradiation of spiny-rayed fishes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110 (31): 12738–12743.

[OC03] Olson, P. D., T. H. Cribb, V. V. Tkach, R. A. Bray & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology 33: 733–755.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[P61] Price, E. W. 1961. North American monogenetic trematodes IX. The families Mazocraeidae and Plectanocotylidae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 127–156.

[P62] Price, E. W. 1962. Redescriptions of two exotic species of monogenetic trematodes and the proposal of a new family. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 295–302.

[W81] Watson, L. 1981. Sea Guide to Whales of the World. Hutchinson: London.

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