Palaeophonus hunteri, from Fritsch (1904).

Belongs within: Euchelicerata.
Contains: Orthosterni.

The Scorpiones, scorpions, are a highly distinctive group of arachnids in which the pedipalps form large chelae and the rear section of the opisthosoma is modified to form a mobile ‘tail’ bearing a terminal sting. Modern scorpions are invariably terrestrial but aquatic habits have been suggested for the earliest known Silurian–Devonian scorpions such as Palaeoscorpius, Proscorpius and the Protoscorpiones. Members of the extinct Palaeoscorpiones and modern Neoscorpionina possess an enlarged prosomal sternum separating the leg coxae; in Palaeoscorpius and the Palaeophonidae, the coxae are positioned anterior to the sternum. Palaeoscorpius devonicus has been suggested to have been an entirely gnathobasic feeder, in contrast to the extraintestinal feeding of modern scorpions (Giribet et al. 2002).

<==Scorpiones [Apoxypodes, Branchioscorpionina, Protoscorpiones, Scorpiniata, Scorpionida]
    |--Palaeoscorpius devonicus Lehmann 1944GE02, S93
       |    |--ArchaeoctonoideaS93
       |    |    |--Archaeoctonus glaber (Peach 1883)S93
       |    |    |--Pseudoarchaeoctonus denticulatus (Kjellesvig-Waering 1986)S93
       |    |    `--Loboarchaeoctonus squamosus (Kjellesvig-Waering 1986)S93
       |    `--ProscorpioideaS93
       |         |--Proscorpius osborni Whitefield 1885LSE13, F04
       |         |--Archaeophonus eurypteroides Kjellesvig-Waering 1966S93
       |         |--Stoermeroscorpio delicatus Kjellesvig-Waering 1986S93
       |         `--Labriscorpio alliedensis Leary 1980S93
          |    |--OrthosterniLSE13
          |    `--PaleosterniS93
          |         |--Allobuthiscorpius major (Wills 1960)S93
          |         `--Buthiscorpius pescei Vachon & Heyler 1985S93
          `--+--Dolichophonus loudonensis (Laurie 1899)GE02, S93
                  `--Palaeophonus Thorell & Lindström 1884LSE13, F04
                       |--P. hunteri Pocock 1902F04
                       |--P. londonensis Laurie 1889F04
                       `--P. nuncius Thorell & Lindström 1885F04
Scorpiones incertae sedis:
    |--Phoxiscorpio peachi Kjellesvig-Waering 1986S93
    `--Mesophonus maculatus Brauer et al. 1889S93
  Dacurus galbineus (Koch 1838) [=Centrurus galbineus, C. galbinus (l. c.), Caucon galbineus]K92
    |--B. mapuera Lourenço 1988L-M-HG08
    `--B. trezziV-MDR07
  Pseudouroctonus apacheanus (Gertsch & Soleglad 1972)AS-N08
  Alacran tartarus Francke 1982L95
    |--W. hefteriGD14
    `--W. westerwaldensisGD14
  Brontoscorpius anglicus Kjellesvig-Waering 1972F14
  Hubeiscorpio gracilitarsis Walossek et al. 1990S93
  Prearcturus gigas Woodward 1871S93
  Butheolus thalassinusS89

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS-N08] Aguiar, A. P. N., P. L. Santana-Neto, J. R. B. Souza & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Relationship between litter characteristics and female size in Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 464–467.

[F14] Francke, O. F. 2014. Biodiversidad de Arthropoda (Chelicerata: Arachnida ex Acari) en México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 85 (Suppl.): 408–418.

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[GD14] Garwood, R. J., & J. Dunlop. 2014. Three-dimensional reconstruction and the phylogeny of extinct chelicerate orders. PeerJ 2: e641.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5–70.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[LSE13] Legg, D. A., M. D. Sutton & G. D. Edgecombe. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4 (2485): 1–7.

[L95] Locket, N. A. 1995. A new ischnurid scorpion from the Northern Territory, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 191–198.

[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 394–401.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S89] Simon, E. 1889. Butheolus thalassinus. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: xcviii–xcix.

[V-MDR07] Villarreal-Manzanilla, O., C. DoNascimiento & C. J. Rodríguez. 2007. Two new species of the enigmatic genus Stenophareus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnidae) from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield. Zootaxa 1471: 43–51.

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