Scraptiidae

Anaspis frontalis, copyright Nikolai Vladimirov.

Belongs within: Tenebrionoidea.

The Scraptiidae are soft-bodied beetles with deeply emarginate eyes that may often be observed around flowers (Pollock 2002).

Characters (from Pollock 2002): Description: Body elongate, about 2.0–2.8 times longer than maximum width, parallel-sided to slightly ovate; slightly flattened to moderately convex dorsally; dorsum with distinct punctation or other macrosculpturing, with or without distinct vestiture; length 1.0–13.5 mm; colour of most taxa uniform, testaceous to black, other taxa with contrasting colour patterns. Head relatively short, slightly to distinctly declined ventrally; temples either shorter or longer than length of eye, associated closely with anterior margin of pronotum, or not; eyes not, or moderately protuberant, with facets coarse or fine; anterior margin of eye slightly to deeply emarginate near antennal insertion; antennae relatively short to moderately long, 11-segmented; antennomeres moniliform, filiform, or flabellate, with or without distinct club; antennal insertions exposed dorsally, moderately to widely separated; frontoclypeal suture indistinctly to distinctly impressed, straight to curved; labrum slightly to distinctly transverse, with subtruncate to emarginate apex; mandibles short and broad, apex moderately to distinctly curved mesally, with distinct mola and prostheca; maxilla with galea and lacinia distinct, apical palpomere of various shape, from slightly expanded to cultriform to broadly securiform; apex of galea densely setose or not; labial palpi small, with apical palpomere simple, truncate, or broadly expanded, cultriform, or deeply emarginate to crescent-shaped. Prothorax widest posteriorly, ratio of pronotal length to maximum width 0.5–1.1; disc of pronotum flattened to slightly and evenly convex, without distinct paired depressions; posterolateral area of disc with small punctiform depression; sides of pronotum evenly arcuate; lateral margins of pronotum disc carinate in posterior half, smooth or only indistinctly carinate near anterior margin; posterolateral angles of pronotum rounded, slightly obtuse, to nearly right; prosternum anterior of coxae very short to short in length, flat or slightly sunken medially; procoxal process short, triangular, not extended between coxae; procoxae projecting, well below level of prosternum; procoxal cavities externally broadly open, contiguous medially; prothoracic protrochantin exposed or not. Elytra elongate to subovate, covering entire abdomen; disc somewhat flattened to moderately convex, with uniform punctation and long, raised setae or with distinct transverse reticulation and shorter, adpressed setae; epipleuron distinct anteriorly, evenly or abruptly narrowed, not visible to elytral apex; scutellum visible, bluntly rounded to triangular posteriorly; mesosternum flattened to slightly convex, anteriorly blunt or rounded; mesosternal process narrow, extended between coxae; mesocoxal cavities open laterally; hind wing long, functional; venation normal; radial cell present or absent; 3–4 free veins in medial area of wing; metasternum variously convex, discrimen distinct, about half length of sternum; legs similar in size and shape on all thoracic segments; femora slightly swollen near midlength, somewhat compressed laterally; tibiae slender, terminal spurs small to moderate in length; tarsi 5-5-4 in both sexes; penultimate tarsomere variously expanded laterally, forming fleshy ventral lobe, absent from hind tarsomere in some taxa. Abdomen with five free ventrites; aedeagus tenebrionoid, symmetrical, with or without distinct parameres; medial lobe slender, with or without apical knob-like enlargement. Larvae subcylindrical, subparallel, lightly sclerotised except for mouthparts and abdominal apex; body surface smooth, with vestiture of fine setae. Head prognathous, exserted from or slightly retracted within prothorax; epicranial suture with short stem or absent; frontal arms lyriform, extended to antennal insertions; endocarinae absent; labrum symmetrical, frons and clypeus fused or separated by distinct suture; stemmata 1 on each side or absent; antennal insertions exposed; antennae three-segmented, segment 2 with small dome-like sensorium; retracted mouthparts with short or no hypostomal rods; mandibles distinctly sclerotised, symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical; mola distinct, with or without basal brush of stout spines; maxilla with single-segmented cardo, and distinct articulating area; mala simple or cleft subapically; maxillary palpi three-segmented; labium free to base of mentum, with short or long (ligula) and two-segmented palpi; hypopharyngeal sclerome transverse; gular sutures separated. Thorax elongate, sides subparallel; legs distinct, five-segmented, of similar shape, each with fine setae. Abdomen subcylindrical, only indistinctly sclerotized; tergite 9 oriented ventrally, bearing urogomphi or dorsally, with large, oblong, dehiscient process; sternite 9 lacking asperities, not enclosed by sternite 8; segment 10 reduced.

<==Scraptiidae [Scaraptiidae, Scraptidae]
| i. s.: Xylophilostenus octophyllusLB91
| ArchescraptiaP92
| PalaeoscraptiaP92
| TrotommaP92
|--ScraptiinaeP02
| |--Allopoda LeConte 1866 [Allopodini]P02
| | `--A. luteaP02
| `--ScraptiiniP02
| |--Canifa LeConte 1866P02
| |--Neoscraptia Fender 1946P02
| | `--N. testacea Fender 1946P02
| |--Pectotoma Hatch 1965P02
| | `--P. hoppingi Hatch 1965P02
| `--Scraptia Latreille 1807P02
| |--S. australisLB91
| |--S. fuscula [incl. S. fusca]LC40
| `--S. picturataB70
`--AnaspidinaeP02
|--PentariiniP02
| |--Pentaria Mulsant 1856 [incl. Anthobates LeConte 1850 non Gistel 1848, Anthobatula Strand 1929]P02
| |--Diclidia LeConte 1862P02
| |--Naucles Champion 1891P02
| `--Sphingocephalus Liljeblad 1945C02
| `--S. ovalis Liljeblad 1945C02
`--Anaspis Geoffroy 1762 [incl. Larisia Emery 1876, Nassipa Emery 1876, Silaria Mulsant 1856; Anaspidini]P02
|--A. ambiguaR26
|--A. anticaP92
|--A. atrataI02
|--A. flavaC01
|--A. frontalis [incl. A. frontalis var. lateralis]C01
|--A. rufaP02
|--A. ruficollisL02
|--A. sibiricaC01
|--A. stierliniC01
`--A. thoracicaLC40

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[LC40] Laporte de Castelnau, F. 1840. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Coléoptères vol. 2. P. Duménil: Paris.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[P02] Pollock, D. A. 2002. Scraptiidae Mulsant 1856. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 564–567. CRC Press.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

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