Figwort Scrophularia nodosa, photographed by Carl Farmer.

Belongs within: Scrophulariaceae.

The Scrophularieae is a clade of mostly northern temperate flowering plants within the mostly Southern Hemisphere or tropical Scrophulariaceae. As well as by molecular phylogenetic analysis, the clade is supported by seed and embryo characteristics, and the presence of idioblasts in the leaves (Olmstead et al. 2001). Species of Scrophularia, the figworts, are herbs with square stems, opposite leaves and open two-lipped flowers borne in terminal clusters. Verbascum, mulleins, have a basal rosette of often densely hairy leaves from which extends a tall flowering stem bearing flowers with five symmetrical petals.

<==Scrophularieae [Verbasceae]
    |    |--V. blattariaOP01
    |    |--V. chinenseVB02
    |    |--V. euboicum Murb. & Rech. 1936PL04
    |    |--V. gaillardotiiHF03
    |    |--V. lychnitisC55b
    |    |--V. phlomoidesH91
    |    |--V. sinaiticusHF03
    |    |--V. sinuatumC55a
    |    |--V. speciosumH93
    |    |--V. spinosumSL06
    |    |--V. thapsusOP01
    |    `--V. virgatumBR65
    `--Scrophularia L. 1753L95
         |--S. argutaC55b
         |--S. atrataH93
         |--S. californicaOP01
         |    |--S. c. ssp. californicaH93
         |    `--S. c. ssp. floribundaH93
         |--S. canina Linnaeus 1753BR65
         |--S. desertorumH93
         |--S. heterophyllaS98
         |--S. himalensisSS72
         |--S. lanceolataH93
         |--S. minutiflora Pennell 1823 [incl. S. micrantha Desv. in Ham. 1825 non Urville 1822]L95
         |--S. nodosaC55a
         |--S. paucifloraO88
         |--S. peregrinaPT98
         |--S. variegataC55a
         |--S. vernalisC55b
         `--S. villosaH93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds)The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[OP01] Olmstead, R. G., C. W. dePamphilis, A. D. Wolfe, N. D. Young, W. J. Elisons & P. A. Reeves. 2001. Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229–234.

[SS72] Singh, V., & H. Singh. 1972. A contribution to the flora of Gangolihat block in Pithoragarh District. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 352–368.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573–581.

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