Scyphozoa

Helmet jelly Periphylla periphylla, copyright Erling Svensen.

Belongs within: Medusozoa.
Contains: Rhizostomeae, Ulmaridae, Pelagiidae, Periphyllidae.

The Scyphozoa are a group of cnidarians including the typical jellyfish and related taxa, united by the presence of polydisc strobilation in metamorphosing polyps (further modified in some rhizostomes), rhopalia and ephyrae. Most scyphozoans have a life-cycle alternating between a sexually reproducing planktonic medusa and an asexually reproducing benthic polyp (Daly et al. 2007).

<==Scyphozoa
    |  i. s.: Stylocoronella Salvini-Plawen 1966CS-P86
    |           |--S. riedli Salvini-Plawen 1966CS-P86
    |           `--S. variabilis Salvini-Plawen 1984CS-P86
    |         Rhizostomites [Lithorhizostomatida, Rhizostomitidae]NS93
    |           `--R. admirandus Haeckel 1869NS93
    |         Corumbella [Corumbellidae]NS93
    |           `--C. werneri Hahn et al. 1982NS93
    |--Discomedusae [Discophora]DB07
    |    |--RhizostomeaeW79
    |    `--Semaeostomeae [Semaeostomatida]RM04
    |         |  i. s.: Floscula prometheaH04
    |         |         Floresca partheniaH04
    |         |--UlmaridaeRM04
    |         |--PelagiidaeM06
    |         |--Eulithota [Eulithotidae]NS93
    |         |    `--E. fasciculata Haeckel 1869NS93
    |         |--Semaeostomites [Semaeostomitidae]NS93
    |         |    `--S. zitteli Haeckel 1869NS93
    |         `--CyaneidaeDB07
    |              |--Procyanea protosemaM06
    |              |--Desmonema gaudichaudiM06, PO99
    |              |--Drymonema victoria [incl. D. dalmatina]M06
    |              |--CouthouyaM06
    |              |    |--C. chierchiana [=Desmonema chierchiana; incl. D. pendula, Medora reticulata]M06
    |              |    `--‘Stenoptycha’ roseaM06
    |              `--CyaneaDM01
    |                   |--‘Desmonema’ annasetheM06
    |                   |--C. behringiana [=C. (Cyaneopsis) behringiana]M06
    |                   |--C. borealis [=Cephea borealis]G20
    |                   |--C. capillata (Linnaeus 1758)M06, L58 (see below for synonymy)
    |                   |--C. ferrugineaM06
    |                   |--C. lamarckiM06
    |                   |--C. lusitanicaR26
    |                   |--C. mediterraneaR26
    |                   `--C. versicolorM06
    `--Coronatae [Cannostomae]W79
         |  i. s.: Zonephyra zonariaH04
         |         Strobila Sars 1829H04, BR05
         |           `--S. monodiscaH04
         |--AtorellaM06 [AtorellidaeDB07]
         |--ParaphyllinidaeDB07
         |--PeriphyllidaeDB07
         |--LinergidaeM06
         |--LinuchidaeW79
         |    |--Linuche unguiculata (Schwartz 1788) [incl. Stephanoscyphus komaii Leloup 1937]W79
         |    `--Linantha lunulataDB07, H04
         |--CollaspididaeNS93
         |    |  i. s.: ‘Camptostroma’ germanicum Hundt 1939NS93
         |    |--Cannostomites multicirratus Maas 1906NS93
         |    `--CollaspisM06
         |--AtollaH04 [AtollidaeDB07]
         |    |--A. achillisM06
         |    |--A. alexandriM06
         |    |--A. bairdiM06
         |    |--A. chuniM06
         |    |--A. giganteaM06
         |    |--A. valdiviaeM06
         |    |--A. vanhoeffeniDM01
         |    |--A. verrilliM06
         |    `--A. wyvilleiDM01
         `--NausithoidaeW79
              |--Palephyra primigeniaM06, H04
              |--Stephanoscyphus Allman 1874W79
              |    |--S. allmani Kirkpatrick 1890W79
              |    |--S. corniformis Komai 1936W79
              |    |--S. racemosus Komai 1936W79
              |    `--S. simplex Kirkpatrick 1890 [incl. S. bianconis, S. sibogae, S. striatus]W79
              `--Nausithoe [incl. Nauphanta]M06
                   |--N. albatrossi [=Nauphanta albatrossi]M06
                   |--N. challengeri [=Nauphanta challengeri]M06
                   |--N. pictaM06
                   |--N. punctata Kölliker 1853W79 (see below for synonymy)
                   |--N. rubraM06
                   `--N. sorbei Jarms, Tiemann & Prados 2003F05

Cyanea capillata (Linnaeus 1758)M06, L58 [=Medusa capillataM06; incl. C. arctica Péron & Lesueur 1809M06, C. capillata var. arcticaB26, Stenoptycha dactylometra Haeckel 1879M06, C. capillata var. fulvaB26, C. postelsii Brandt 1838M06, C. arctica var. postelsiM06, C. capillata var. postelsiiM06]

Nausithoe punctata Kölliker 1853W79 [incl. Stephanoscyphus mirabilis Allman 1874W79, Nauphanta polaris Fewkes 1888M06, Nausithoe punctata var. polarisM06]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 33–42. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[DM01] Dawson, M. N., & L. E. Martin. 2001. Geographic variation and ecological adaptation in Aurelia (Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae): some implications from molecular phylogenetics. Hydrobiologia 451: 259–273.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M06] Maas, O. 1906. Die arktischen Medusen (ausschliesslich der Polypomedusen). In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 479–526. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[NS93] Nudds, J. R., & J. J. Sepkoski Jr. 1993. Coelenterata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 101–124. Chapman & Hall: London.

[PO99] Pagès, F., & C. Orejas. 1999. Medusae, siphonophores and ctenophores of the Magellan region. Scientia Marina 63 (Suppl. 1): 51–57.

[RM04] Raskoff, K. A., & G. I. Matsumoto. 2004. Stellamedusa ventana, a new mesopelagic scyphomedusa from the eastern Pacific representing a new subfamily, the Stellamedusinae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84: 37–42.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[W79] Werner, B. 1979. Coloniality in the Scyphozoa: Cnidaria. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 81–103. Academic Press: London.

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