Scytodidae

Scytodes thoracica, copyright Tone Killick.

Belongs within: Scytodoidea.

The Scytodidae, spitting spiders, are a cosmopolitan (mostly tropical) group of spiders that capture prey by spraying it with gluey silk (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007). The species Dictis striatipes, Scytodes longipes and S. thoracica have become widely introduced outside their native ranges in association with humans.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to medium-sized; three tarsal claws; ecribeelate; haplogyne; six eyes in three diads; thoracic region domed, containing prosomal glands producing gluey silk; legs long and slender; body decorated with symmetrical dark pattern.

Scytodidae [Retitelariae]
|--Phalangopus subtilis Menge 1854D06
|--Scyloxes Dunin 1992JD-S07
|--Soeuria Saaristo 1997JD-S07
|--Stedocys Ono 1995JD-S07
| |--S. leopoldiR14
| `--S. pagodasWC17
|--Dictis Koch 1872JD-S07
| |--D. domestica (Doleschall 1859) [=Scytodes domestica; incl. D. fumida Thorell 1891]T94
| `--D. striatipes Koch 1872PVD10
`--Scytodes Latreille 1804PVD10
|--*S. thoracica Latreille 1802C01, PVD10 [=Aranea thoracicaC01, Segestria (Scytodes) thoracicaG20]
|--S. bergeri Strand 1915J98
|--S. bizonata Risso 1826R26
|--S. distincta Lucas 1846E12
|--S. fuscaD95
|--S. globulaWC17
|--S. intricataR14
|--S. itapevi Brescovit & Rheims 2000FM11
|--S. longipesB06
|--S. marmorata Koch 1872S99
|--S. pallida Doleschall 1859D59
|--S. piliformis Wunderlich 1988S93
|--S. planithorax Wunderlich 1988S93
|--S. propinqua Stoliczka 1869S69
`--S. stridulans Wunderlich 1988S93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. A revision of the genera of the Araneae or spiders with reference to their type species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 51–65.

[D59] Doleschall, C. L. 1859. Tweede Bijdrage tot de kennis der Arachniden van den Indischen Archipel. Verhandelingen der Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indie [Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae] 5 (5): 1–60, pls 1–18.

[D95] Downes, M. F. 1995. Australasian social spiders: what is meant by ‘social’? Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 25–32.

[D06] Dunlop, J. A. 2006. Baltic amber harvestman types (Arachnida: Opiliones: Eupnoi and Dyspnoi). Fossil Record 9 (2): 167–182.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FM11] Freire-Jr, G. de B., & P. C. Motta. 2011. Effects of experimental fire regimes on the abundance and diversity of cursorial arachnids of Brazilian savannah (cerrado biome). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 263–272.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S99] Simon, E. 1899. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896–1897). Arachnoideen. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie un Biologie der Thiere 12 (4): 411–437.

[S69] Stoliczka, F. 1869. Contribution to the knowledge of Indian Arachnoidea. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 38 pt 2 (4): 201–251, pls 18–20.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

[WC17] Wheeler, W. C., J. A. Coddington, L. M. Crowley, D. Dimitrov, P. A. Goloboff, C. E. Griswold, G. Hormiga, L. Prendini, M. J. Ramírez, P. Sierwald, L. Almeida-Silva, F. Alvarez-Padilla, M. A. Arnedo, L. R. Benavides Silva, S. P. Benjamin, J. E. Bond, C. J. Grismado, E. Hasan, M. Hedin, M. A. Izquierdo, F. M. Labarque, J. Ledford, L. Lopardo, W. P. Maddison, J. A. Miller, L. N. Piacentini, N. I. Platnick, D. Polotow, D. Silva-Dávila, N. Scharff, T. Szűts, D. Ubick, C. J. Vink, H. M. Wood & J. Zhang. 2017. The spider tree of life: phylogeny of Araneae based on target-gene analyses from an extensive taxon sampling. Cladistics 33: 574–616.

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