Japanese angelshark Squatina japonica, copyright Ryo Sato.
Belongs within: Chondrichthyes.
Contains: Carcharhiniformes, Lamniformes, Orectolobiformes, Hexanchiformes, Squalidae.

The Selachimorpha are the clade including all modern sharks, distinguished from the rays by the pectoral fins remaining separate from the head. Most living sharks can be divided between the clades Galeomorphii and Squalomorphii with members of the latter clade being characterised by a projection into the orbit from the upper-jaw cartilage (Mallatt & Winchell 2007).

|  i. s.: Scylliodus antiquus [=Scyliorhinus antiquus, Scyllium antiquum] B18
|–Galeomorphii B96
|    |  i. s.: Synechodontiformes [Palaeospinacomorphii] D01
|    |           |  i. s.: Synechodus D01
|    |           |           |–S. enniskilleni D01
|    |           |           |–S. occultidens D01
|    |           |           |–S. pinnai Duffin 1987 D01
|    |           |           `–S. riegrafi D01
|    |           `–Palaeospinacidae CDZ93
|    |                |–Palaeospinax H72
|    |                `–Paraorthacodus D01
|    |                     |–P. arduennae Delsate 2001 D01
|    |                     |–P. clarkii (Eastman 1901) CDZ93
|    |                     |–P. eocaenus (Leriche 1902) CDZ93
|    |                     |–P. jurensis D01
|    |                     `–P. kruckowi D01
|    |–Carcharhiniformes MW07
|    `–Lamnoidei [Galeoidea] M58
|         |–Lamniformes MW07
|         `–Orectolobiformes MW07
`–+–Heterodontus [Heterodontidae, Heterodontiformes] MW07
|    |–H. duffini Thies 1983 CDZ93
|    |–H. eocaenus (Regan 1864) [=Asteracanthus eocaenus] CDZ93
|    |–H. falcifer (Wagner 1857) CDZ93
|    |–H. francisci B96
|    |–H. galeatus G75
|    |–H. japonica M96
|    `–H. portusjacksoni G75
`–Squalomorphii B96
|  i. s.: Protospinax [Protospinacidae, Protospinaciformes] B96
|           |–P. annectans Woodward 1919 CDZ93
|           `–P. planus DC02
|–Hexanchiformes MW07
`–+–Pristiophoridae [Pristiophoriformes] MW07
|    |–Pristiophorus tumidens (Woodward 1932) MW07, CDZ93
|    `–Pliotrema B96
`–+–Squatina (see below for synonymy) MW07
|    |–S. acanthoderma Fraas 1854 CDZ93
|    |–S. aculeata VF21
|    |–S. angeloides F91
|    |–S. californica C84
|    |–S. dumeril C84
|    |–S. japonica VF21
|    `–S. tergocellata KW70
`–Squaliformes [Squaloidea] MW07
|  i. s.: Zameus squamulosus VF21
|–Squalidae C84
`–Echinorhinidae CDZ93
|–Gibbechinorhinus lewyi Cappetta 1990 CDZ93
`–Echinorhinus G60
|–E. brucus (Bonnaterre 1788) [incl. E. mccoyi] G60
`–E. cookei Pitschmann 1928 G60

Squatina [Rhinae, Rhinida, Rhiniformes, Rhinoidei, Squatinae, Squatinidae, Squatiniformes, Squatinina, Squatinoidea, Squatinoidei, Squatinomorphii, Tectospondyli] MW07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B18] Bernárdez, E. 2018. Truyolsodontos estauni n. gen., n. sp., Truyolsodontidae, a new family of lamniform sharks from the Cenomanian of northern Spain. Annales de Paléontologie 104: 175–181.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[CDZ93] Cappetta, H., C. Duffin & J. Zidek. 1993. Chondrichthyes. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 593–609. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C84] Compagno, L. J. V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue vol. 4. Sharks of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2—Carcharhiniformes. United Nations Development Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome.

[D01] Delsate, D. 2001. L’ichthyofaune du Pliensbachian (Jurassique inferieur) de Lorraine et des Ardennes (France): premiers resultats. Bulletin de l’Académie Lorraine des Sciences 40 (1–2): 47–69.

[DC02] Delsate, D., & L. Candoni. 2002. Les premieres raies (Chondrichthyes—Elasmobranchii) au Jurassique inferieur en Lorraine (Luxembourg, Belgique, France) et dans le Bassin de Paris. Bulletin de l’Académie Lorraine des Sciences 41 (3–4): 93–103.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[G60] Garrick, J. A. F. 1960. Studies on New Zealand Elasmobranchii. Part XII. The species of Squalus from New Zealand and Australia; and a general account and key to the New Zealand Squaloidea. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 519–557.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[H72] Hulley, P. A. 1972. The origin, interrelationship and distribution of southern African Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Annals of the South African Museum 60 (1): 1–103.

[KW70] Kirkegaard, I., & R. H. Walker. 1970. Synopsis of biological data on the eastern king prawn Penaeus plebejus Hess, 1865. C.S.I.R.O. Fisheries and Oceanography Fisheries Synopsis 7.

[M96] Mallatt, J. 1996. Ventilation and the origin of jawed vertebrates: a new mouth. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 117: 329–404.

[MW07] Mallatt, J., & C. J. Winchell. 2007. Ribosomal RNA genes and deuterostome phylogeny revisited: more cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, reptiles, and a brittle star. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 1005–1022.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[VF21] Vullo, R., E. Frey, C. Ifrim, M. A. González González, E. S. Stinnesbeck & W. Stinnesbeck. 2021. Manta-like planktivorous sharks in Late Cretaceous oceans. Science 371: 1253–1256.

Last updated: 26 March 2022.

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