Semionotiformes

Lepidotes elvensis, copyright Ghedoghedo.
Belongs within: Holostei.

The Semionotiformes are a group of fishes including the modern gars and their fossil relatives, united by the absence of the intercalar and gular bones, the presence of a series of antorbitals anterior to the circum-orbital ring, and enlarged basal and fringing fulcra (Cavin 2010).

<==Semionotiformes [Ginglymodi, Semionotoidei]
|  i. s.: Clastes Cope 1872 C77
|           |–C. aganus Cope 1877 C77
|           |–C. anax C77
|           |–C. atrox [=Lepidosteus atrox] C77
|           |–C. cycliferus C77
|           |–C. integer Cope 1877 C77
|           |–C. notabilis [=Lepidosteus notabilis] C77
|           `–‘Lepidosteus’ simplex C77
|         Pneumatosteus C77
|–+–Notagogus ferreri C10, S02
|  |–Propterus GX17
|  |    |–P. elongatus GX17
|  |    `–P. vidali S02
|  `–Macrosemiidae G93
|       |–Macrosemius rostratus GX17, FS10
|       |–Legonotus Egerton 1854 G93
|       `–Enchelyolepis Woodward 1918 G93
`–+–Macrosemimimus lennieri GX17
|–Sangiorgichthys aldae C10
`–Semionotidae
|  i. s.: Lepidotyle Meunier & Gayet 1992 GM01
|           `–L. enigmatica Meunier & Gayet 1992 GM01
|         Alleiolepis Heller 1953 G93
|         Aphelolepis Heller 1953 G93
|         Asialepidotus Su 1959 G93
|         Sinosemionotus Yuan & Koh 1936 G93
|         Allelepidotus Frič 1906 G93
|         Pericentrophorus Jörg 1969 G93
|–+–Semionotus Agassiz 1832 C10, G93
|  |    |–S. bergeri C10
|  |    `–+–S. elegans C10
|  |       `–S. kanabensis C10
|  `–Lepidotes Agassiz 1832 C10, G93
|       |–+–L. lennieri C10
|       |  `–+–L. gloriae C10
|       |     `–L. tendaguruensis C10
|       `–+—-L. minor C10
|          `–+–L. mantelli C10
|             `–+–L. semiserratus C10
|                |–+–L. elvensis C10
|                |  `–+–L. latifrons C10
|                |     `–Isanichthys palustris C10
|                `–+–L. piauhyensis C10
|                   `–Paralepidotus Stolley 1920 C10, G93
|                        `–P. ornatus C10
`–+–Neosemionotus puntanus C10
`–+–‘Lepidotes’ microrhis C10
`–+–‘Lepidotes’ buddhabutrensis C10
`–+–+–Araripelepidotes temnurus C10
|  `–Pliodetes nigeriensis C10
`–+–Masillosteus kelleri C10
`–Lepisosteidae [Lepisosteiformes, Lepisostoidei] B-RB13
|  i. s.: Paralepidosteus Arambourg & Joleaud 1943 G93
|–Obaichthys decoratus GX17
`–+–Oniichthys falipoui C10
|–Lepisosteus Lacépède 1903 GX17, G93
|    |–L. osseus GM01
|    `–L. platostomus FS10
`–Atractosteus GX17
|–A. ferox C77
|–A. spatula B96
|–A. tristoechus R88 [=Lepisosteus tristoechus G88]
`–A. tropicus R88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[C10] Cavin, L. 2010. Diversity of Mesozoic semionotiform fishes and the origin of gars (Lepisosteidae). Naturwissenschaften 97: 1035–1040.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[FS10] Friedman, M., K. Shimada, L. D. Martin, M. J. Everhart, J. Liston, A. Maltese & M. Triebold. 2010. 100-million-year dynasty of giant planktivorous bony fishes in the Mesozoic seas. Science 327: 990–993.

[G93] Gardiner, B. G. 1993. Osteichthyes: basal actinopterygians. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 611–619. Chapman & Hall: London.

[GM01] Gayet, M., L. G. Marshall, T. Sempere, F. J. Meunier, H. Cappetta & J-C. Rage. 2001. Middle Maastrichtian vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, dinosaurs and other reptiles, mammals) from Pajcha Pata (Bolivia). Biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiostratigraphic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 169: 39–68.

[GX17] Giles, S., G.-H. Xu, T. J. Near & M. Friedman. 2017. Early members of ‘living fossil’ lineage imply later origin of modern ray-finned fishes. Nature 549: 265–268.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[R88] Rauchenberger, M. 1988. Historical biogeography of poeciliid fishes in the Caribbean. Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 356–365.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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