Senecio

 Senecio greyi, from here.

Belongs within: Asteroideae.

Senecio, the groundsels, is a large genus of composite-flowered plants found worldwide. Some species are significant as invasive pasture weeds, such as the toxic ragwort S. jacobaea. The fireweed S. madagascariensis, native to Africa, is potentially a serious pasture weed in Australia, but control has been complicated by taxonomic confusion between S. madagascariensis and native Australian species of the S. lautus complex (Scott et al. 1998). The type species of the genus is the common groundsel S. vulgaris, whose inflorescences lack ray florets and have the disc florets inconspicuous and largely hidden by the bracts. Section Adamantina is an assemblage of Brazilian species with xylopodia, sessile densely rosetted basal leaves, sparse apical leaves, and radiate capitula in corymbiform capitulescences (Teles et al. 2009).

Characters (from Black & Robertson 1965): Herbs with alternate leaves; heads usually in terminal corymbs. Involucre cylindrical or rarely campanulate, of equal bracts in one row, usually with a few small ones at base; receptacle naked; disc-flowers tubular, bisexual, five-toothed; ray-flowers either female ligulate in one row, or female filiform, with very reduced ligules, in two to three rows, or all flowers tubular, discoid; achenes terete and striate; pappus of numerous white capillary silky caducous bristles.

<==Senecio Linnaeus 1753 [Senecioninae]A61
|--S. sect. Adamantina Cabrera 1950TNS09
| |--S. (sect. *Adamantina) adamantinus Bong. 1838TNS09
| |--S. albus Nakajima & Teles in Teles, Nakajima & Stehmann 2009TNS09
| |--S. caparaoensisTNS09
| |--S. colpodesTNS09
| |--S. dumetorumTNS09
| |--S. gertii Zardini 1979TNS09
| |--S. graciellaeTNS09
| `--S. pseudostigophlebiusTNS09
|--S. sect AetheolenaC61
| |--S. cuencanusC61
| |--S. doryphyllus Cuatrecasas 1961C61
| |--S. longipenicillatusC61
| `--S. patensC61
`--S. (sect. Crociseris ser. Nemorenses) kuanshanensis Peng & Chung in Chung & Peng 2002CP02

Senecio incertae sedis:
*S. vulgarisLM98
S. acanthifoliusD03
S. adamsii Cheeseman 1896 [incl. S. pachyphyllus Cheeseman 1884 non S. pachyphyllos Remy in Gay 1849]A61
S. adnivalisPB27
S. aegyptiusBG96
S. albopurpureusO88
S. alpestris [=S. ovatus ssp. alpestris]BGS05
S. andersoniD03
S. anethifoliusBR65
S. antipodus Kirk 1899A61
S. aphanactisH93
S. apuanusBGS05
S. aquaticusC06
S. argenteusD03
S. aronicoidesH93
S. aschenborneanusBT87
S. astephanusH93
S. aureusA16
S. australis Willdenow 1803BR65
S. banksii Hooker 1853A61 (see below for synonymy)
S. behrianusBR65
S. bennettii Simpson & Thomson 1942A61
S. bellidioides Hooker 1853 (see below for synonymy)A61
S. bernardinusH93
S. bidwillii Hooker 1853 [incl. Olearia rigida Colenso 1888]A61
|--S. b. var. bidwilliiA61
`--S. b. var. viridis Cheeseman 1906 [=S. viridis Kirk 1899 non Phil. 1891]A61
S. bifistulosus Hooker 1853A61
S. biligulatusO88
S. biserratus Belcher 1956ME70, A61
S. blochmaniaeH93
S. bolanderiH93
S. brachyglossusBR65
S. breweriH93
S. buchiiJ87
S. bullatusC61
S. burchelliiSCP98
S. cacaliasterBGS05
S. californicus [incl. S. ammophilus]H93
S. cambrensisRS98
S. candicansRJ11
S. candolleanusO88
S. canescensR96
S. canusH93
S. carnosulusLM98 [=S. lautus var. carnosulus Kirk 1899A61, S. lautus ssp. carnosulus (Kirk) Ornduff 1960A61]
S. cassinioides Hooker 1864A61
S. chilensisD03
S. chionaspisMM96
S. × christensenii Cockayne 1917 [S. bellidioides × S. monroi]A61
S. chrysanthemoidesO88
S. clarkianusH93
S. clevelandii [incl. S. clevelandii var. heterophylla non S. heterophylla Colenso 1895]H93
S. cockaynei Simpson & Thomson 1942A61
S. colensoi Hooker 1853A61
|--S. c. var. colensoiA61
`--S. c. var. lobulatus Allan 1961A61
S. compactus Kirk 1880A61
S. constanzaeJ87
S. coronopifoliusD17
S. cruentusMH98
S. cunninghamiiBR65
S. cymbalarioidesH93
S. cymosusD03
S. danyausiiD03
S. diversifoliusO88
S. doronicumR00
S. dryadeus Sieb. 1826 [incl. S. australis Richard 1832 non Willdenow 1803]BR65
S. elaeagnifolius Hooker 1853 (see below for synonymy)A61
S. elegansBR65
S. engleranusCV06
S. erici-roseniiPB27
S. eurycephalusH93
|--S. e. var. eurycephalusH93
`--S. e. var. lewisroseiH93
S. favillosus Cuatrecasas 1961C61
S. flaccidusH93
|--S. f. var. flaccidusH93
|--S. f. var. douglasii [incl. S. douglasii var. tularensis]H93
`--S. f. var. monoensisH93
S. flavusH93
S. folidentatusC61
S. fremontiiH93
|--S. f. var. fremontiiH93
`--S. f. var. occidentalisH93
S. funckiiC61
S. gallicusR35
S. ganderiH93
S. georgianusBR65
|--S. g. var. georgianusBR65
`--S. g. var. latifoliusBR65
S. germanicusBGS05
|--S. g. ssp. germanicusBGS05
`--S. g. ssp. karaulensisBGS05
S. giessiiCV06
S. glaucophyllus Cheeseman 1896 [incl. S. lautus var. montanus Cheeseman 1906]A61
|--S. g. ssp. glaucophyllusA61
|--S. g. ssp. basinudus Ornduff 1960A61
|--S. g. ssp. discoideus (Cheeseman) Ornduff 1960 [=S. lautus var. discoideus Cheeseman 1906]A61
`--S. g. ssp. raoulii (Hooker) Ornduff 1960 [=S. lautus var. raoulii Hooker 1853]A61
S. glaucusBG96
S. glomeratus Desf. ex Poiret in Lam. 1817A61
S. glossanthusG04
S. graciliflorusO88
S. greeneiH93
S. gregoriiBR65
S. greyi Hooker 1853A61
S. haastii Hooker 1864A61
S. harrietae Cuatrecasas 1961C61
S. harveianusSCP98
S. haworthiiJ54
S. hectori Buchan. 1873A61
S. herborgii Soldano, Galasso & Banfi 2005 (see below for synonymy)BGS05
S. hercynicusBGS05
S. hermanniiCV06
S. herreianusJ54
S. hispidulus [=Erechtites hispidula]BR65
S. hoggariensisD17
S. hotteanusJ87
S. huntii Muell. 1864A61
S. hybridusH93
S. hydrophiloides [=S. foetidus var. hydrophiloides; incl. S. foetidus]H93
S. hydrophilusH93
S. hypoleucus [incl. S. odoratus var. petiolatus]BR65
S. inaequidensSCP98
S. incanusC55a
S. indecorus [incl. S. pauciflorus var. fallax]H93
S. integerrimusH93
|--S. i. var. integerrimusH93
|--S. i. var. exaltatusH93
|--S. i. var. majorH93 [=S. brachyglossus var. majorBR65]
`--S. i. var. ochroleucusH93
S. ionophyllusH93
S. jacobaea [incl. S. dimorphocarpos Col. 1894]C06
S. johnstoniiJ54
S. kirkii Hooker ex Kirk 1899 (see below for synonymy)A61
|--S. k. var. kirkiiA61
`--S. k. var. angustior Allan 1961A61
S. kunthianusO88
S. lagopus Raoul 1844A61
S. lapidosus Cheeseman 1916A61
S. lautus Forst. f. ex Willd. 1804A69 [incl. S. angustifoliusC06]
| i. s.: S. l. var. pilosusBR65
|--S. l. ssp. lautusA69
|--S. l. ssp. alpinus Ali 1969A69
|--S. l. ssp. dissectifolius Ali 1969 (see below for synonymy)A69
|--S. l. ssp. lanceolatus (Benth.) Ali 1969 [=S. lautus var. lanceolatus Benth. 1866]A69
`--S. l. ssp. maritimus Ali 1969 [incl. S. spathulatus Rich. 1834]A69
S. laxifolius Buchan. 1870 [=S. laxiflorus ms]A61
S. layneaeH93
S. lemmoniiM69
S. longilobusS72
S. lyallii Hooker 1853A61
S. lyoniiH93
S. macounii [incl. S. ligulifolius]H93
S. madagascariensisSCP98
S. magnificusBR65
S. marotiriLM98
S. matthewsii Petrie 1924A61
S. megaglossusBR65
S. megaphyllumMM96
S. mikanioides Otto ex Walp. in Otto & Dietr. 1845C06 [incl. S. scandensBR65]
S. mixtaBR65
S. mohavensisH93
S. monroi Hooker 1855A61
|--S. m. var. monroiA61
`--S. m. var. elongatus Allan 1961A61
S. morrisonensisCP02
S. multicaulis Richard 1834BR65
|--S. m. var. multicaulisBR65
|--S. m. var. dissectaBR65
`--S. m. var. microcephalaBR65
S. multilobatus [incl. S. stygius]H93
S. myrianthos Cheeseman 1875 [incl. S. cheesemanii Hooker 1877]A61
S. nemorensisR00
S. odoratus Hornemann 1815A61
|--S. o. var. odoratusBR65
`--S. o. var. obtusifoliusBR65 [=S. colensoi var. obtusifolius Allan 1961A61]
S. orariusBR65
S. otitesB06
S. ovatus [=S. fuchsii]BGS05
S. paludosusR00
S. palustrisC55a
S. patagonicusSB06
S. pattersonensisH93
S. pauciflorusH93
S. pectioidesC61
S. pellucidusSCP98
S. perdicioides Hooker 1853 [incl. S. multinerve Colenso 1893, S. tripetaloides Colenso 1899]A61
|--S. p. var. perdicioidesA61
`--S. p. var. distinctus (Colenso) Kirk 1899 [=S. distinctus Colenso 1895]A61
S. persicaefolius Ramond 1800R00
S. picardaeJ87
S. platylepisBR65
S. × pottsii Armst. 1872A61
S. praecoxB06
S. pseudaureus [incl. S. pauciflorus var. jucundulus]H93
S. pterophorusBR65
|--S. p. var. pterophorusBR65
|--S. p. var. apterusBR65
`--S. p. var. verusBR65
S. purpuratusD03
S. quadridentatus Labill. 1806BR65, A61 [=Erechtites quadridentata (Labill.) DC. 1838A61]
|--S. q. var. quadridentatusA61
|--‘Erechtites’ quadridentata var. lanceola Kirk 1899A61
`--‘Erechtites’ quadridentata var. traversii Allan 1961A61
S. radiolatus Muell. 1864 [=S. lautus var. radiolatus (Muell.) Kirk 1899]A61
S. ramosusO88
S. reinoldii Endl. 1836 (see below for synonymy)A61
|--S. r. var. reinoldiiA61
`--S. r. var. ambiguus (Cheeseman) Allan 1961 [=S. rotundifolius var. ambiguus Cheeseman 1925]A61
S. remotifolius Petrie 1924A61
S. repangae de Lange & Murray 1998LM98
|--S. r. ssp. repangaeLM98
`--S. r. ssp. pokohinuensis de Lange & Murray 1998LM98
S. revolutus Kirk 1899 [incl. S. robustus Buchan. 1874 non Sch. Bip. 1845]A61
S. romeroi Cuatrecasas 1961C61
S. rowleyanusSBM11
S. rufiglandulosus Colenso 1896 [=S. rufiglandulosis, S. solandri var. rufiglandulosus (Colenso) Allan 1961]A61
|--S. r. var. rufiglandulosusA61 [=S. latifolius var. rufiglandulosusC06]
|--S. r. var. sinuatifolius (Kirk) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy)A61
`--S. r. var. solandri (Allan) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy)A61
S. rugosus Cuatrecasas 1961C61
S. runcinifolius Willis 1952 [incl. Erechtites picridoides Sonder & von Mueller 1852 non Turczaninow 1851]BR65
S. salignusMM96
S. sarracenicusC55b
S. saxifragoides Hooker 1853A61
S. scaberulusLM98 (see below for synonymy)
|--S. s. var. scaberulusA61
`--‘Erechtites scaberula’ var. chathamica Allan 1961A61
S. sciadophilus Raoul 1844A61
S. scorzonella [incl. S. covillei]H93
S. scorzoneroides Hooker 1853 [=S. lyallii var. scorzoneroides (Hooker) Kirk 1899]A61
S. serraH93
S. skirrhodonSCP98
S. smithiiD03
S. southlandicus Cockayne 1915A61
|--S. s. var. southlandicusA61
`--S. s. var. albidulus Allan 1961A61
S. spartioidesH93
S. spedenii Petrie 1924A61
S. squalidusRS98 [incl. S. chrysanthemifoliusC55b]
S. stabianus [=S. nemorensis ssp. stabianus]BGS05
S. stenodonJ87
S. sterquilinus Ornduff 1960 [incl. S. lautus var. macrocephalus Hooker 1853]A61
S. stewartiae Armstrong 1881 [incl. S. muelleri Kirk 1883]A61
S. streptanthifoliusH93
S. subarachnoideusC61
S. subnudusM76
S. sylvaticus [incl. S. areolatus Colenso 1894]C06
S. taitungensisCP02
S. tarokoensisCP02
S. topkegolensisO88
S. traversii Muell. 1861 [incl. S. cochlearis Simpson & Thomson 1942]A61
S. triangularisH93
S. trifurcatusD03
S. trineurusJ87
S. triodonD03
S. turneri Cheeseman 1911A61
S. velleioidesB96
S. vernalis Waldst. & Kit. 1800PL04
S. viscosusH64
S. werneriaefolius [incl. S. muirii]H93
S. windhoekensisCV06

Nomen nudum: Senecio dusenii Hoffm. in Dusén 1903D03

Senecio banksii Hooker 1853A61 [incl. S. pumiceus var. angustatus Kirk 1899 non S. bellidioides var. angustatus Kirk 1899A61, S. banksii var. angustatusC06, S. pumiceus Colenso 1899A61, S. banskii var. scabrosusA61, S. banksii var. velleiaA61]

Senecio bellidioides Hooker 1853 [incl. S. bellidioides var. angustatus Kirk 1899, S. angustatus (Kirk) Cockayne & Sledge 1932, S. bellidioides var. crassus Simpson & Thomson 1943, S. bellidioides var. glabratus Kirk 1899 non S. glabratus Hook. & Arn. 1830, S. bellidioides var. orbiculatus Simpson & Thomson 1942, S. bellidioides var. setosus Simpson & Thomson 1942]A61

Senecio elaeagnifolius Hooker 1853 [incl. S. buchananii Armst. 1879, S. elaeagnifolius var. buchananii (Armst.) Kirk 1899]A61

Senecio herborgii Soldano, Galasso & Banfi 2005 [=S. germanicus ssp. glabratus Herborg 1987 nec S. glabratus Hook. & Arn. 1830 nec S. bellidioides var. glabratus Kirk 1899]BGS05

Senecio kirkii Hooker ex Kirk 1899 [incl. Solidago arborescens Cunn. 1839 non Forster 1786, S. glastifolius Hooker 1853 non Linn. f. 1781, S. neo-zeylandicus Druce 1917]A61

Senecio lautus ssp. dissectifolius Ali 1969 [incl. S. capillifolius Hook. f. in Hook. 1847, S. carnulentus DC. 1837, S. crithmifolius Rich. 1834, S. endlicheri DC. 1837, S. neglectus Rich. 1832, S. pinnatifolius Rich. 1834]A69

Senecio reinoldii Endl. 1836 [incl. S. puffinii Allan ex Rehder 1946, Brachyglottis rotundifolia Forster & Forster 1776, Cineraria rotundifolia Forster 1786, Senecio rotundifolius Hooker 1853 non Stokes 1812]A61

Senecio rufiglandulosus var. sinuatifolius (Kirk) Allan 1961 [=S. latifolius var. sinuatifolius Kirk 1899, S. solandri var. sinuatifolius (Kirk) Allan 1961]A61

Senecio rufiglandulosus var. solandri (Allan) Allan 1961 [=S. solandri Allan 1935; incl. S. latifolius Banks & Sol. ex Hooker 1853 non DC. 1838]A61

Senecio scaberulusLM98 [=Erechtites scaberula Hooker 1864A61, S. hispidulus var. scaberulus Belcher 1956A61; incl. E. pumila Armst. 1881A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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