Serpula vermicularis, copyright Dugornay Olivier.

Belongs within: Serpulidae.

The Serpulinae are tube worms in which one of the radioles of the tentacular crown is modified into an operculum.

    |--Marifugia Absolon & Hrabě 1930H-S86
    |    `--M. cavatica Absolon & Hrabě 1930H-S86
    `--Serpula Linné 1768H62
         |  i. s.: S. arenaria Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. concharum Langerhans 1880HB-E05
         |         S. glomerata Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. intrica White 1877W77
         |         S. intricata Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. massiliensisH79
         |         S. norvegicaJ64
         |         S. obscuraG31
         |         S. penicillus Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. planorbis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. ringens Linnaeus 1758L58
         |         S. testatrix Etheridge 1892F71
         |         S. vasiferaH79
         |--S. (Serpula)G20
         |    |--*S. (S.) vermicularis Linnaeus 1767H62, SS07 [=Tubus vermicularisH62]
         |    `--S. (S.) contortuplicata Linnaeus 1758G20, L58
         `--S. (Ocreale) rectangulum [=Sabella rectangulum]G20

*Type species of generic name indicated


[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[H-S86] Hartmann-Schröder, G. 1986. Polychaeta (incl. Archiannelida). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 210–233. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[H79] Hove, H. A. ten. 1979. Different causes of mass occurrence in serpulids. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 281–298. Academic Press: London.

[HB-E05] Hove, H. A. ten, & M. N. Ben-Eliahu. 2005. On the identity of Hydroides priscus Pillai 1971—taxonomic confusion due to ontogeny in some serpulid genera (Annelida: Polychaeta: Serpulidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 127–145.

[H62] Howell, B. F. 1962. Worms. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W144–W177. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[SS07] Struck, T. H., N. Schutt, T. Kusen, E. Hickman, C. Bleidorn, D. McHugh & K. M. Halanych. 2007. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 57.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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