Arrowleaf sida Sida rhombifolia, copyright Tony Rodd.

Belongs within: Malvaceae.

Sida is a widespread genus of herbs and shrubs found in warmer regions of the world. They produce yellow or orange, bisexual flowers that develop into schizocarp fruits with hard, often indehiscent mericarps (Harden 1990). Arrowleaf sida S. rhombifolia has historically been used as a source of fibre for cordage.

Characters (from Harden 1990): Herbs or shrubs with stellate hairs. Leaves shallowly lobed or more often unlobed, margins entire to toothed; petioles usually short. Flowers axillary, solitary or in terminal heads or spikes; peduncles often jointed. Epicalyx absent. Calyx 5-lobed, often 10-ribbed at base in fruit. Petals yellow to orange. Staminal tube slender. Ovary 5–10-locular, each loculus 1-ovulate; styles as many as loculi; stigmas terminal, capitate. Fruit a schizocarp; mericarps indehiscent or 2-valved.

    |--S. sect. MalvindaU16
    |    |--S. acutaU16
    |    |--S. barclayiU16
    |    |--S. tobatiensis Ulbrich 1916U16
    |    `--S. weberbaueri Ulbrich 1916U16
    `--S. sect. StenindaU16
         |--S. fiebrigii Ulbrich 1916U16
         `--S. hassleriU16

Sida incertae sedis:
  S. ammophilaM99
  S. argillaceaZ94
  S. atrovirensG04
  S. brachypodaLK14
  S. calyxhymeniaKM08
  S. carpinifoliaC55
  S. chrysocalyxG04
  S. cordataPP07
  S. cordifoliaM99 [incl. S. africanaC55, S. altheifoliaC55]
  S. corrugataKM08
    |--S. c. var. corrugataB96
    `--S. c. var. orbicularisB96
  S. cunninghamii [incl. S. pedunculata]H90
  S. diffusaBTA75
  S. echinocarpaEF04
  S. everistianaZ94
  S. fibuliferaZ94
  S. filiformisEF04
  S. goniocarpaZ94
  S. hackettianaLK14
  S. hookerianaGK00
  S. humilisC55
  S. intricataZ94
  S. junceaC55
  S. kingiiEF04
  S. linifolia [incl. S. linearifolia]C55
  S. lomageiton Ulbrich 1916U16
  S. macropodaLK14
  S. maculataS66
  S. oligandraU16
  S. periplocifolia [=Abutilon periplocifolium]C55
  S. petrophilaH90
  S. phaeotricha [=S. virgata var. phaeotricha; incl. S. cryphiopetala]H90
  S. platycalyxM99
  S. pleianthaH90
  S. procumbensBT72
  S. pusillaLK14
  S. rhombicaB28
  S. rhombifoliaDP72
  S. ricinoidesU16
  S. rohlenaeLK14
    |--S. r. ssp. rohlenaeLK14
    `--S. r. ssp. occidentalisLK14
  S. rupo Ulbrich 1916U16
  S. spicataZ94
  S. spinosaM99
  S. stipulata [incl. S. prostrata]C55
  S. subcordataLK14
  S. subspicataZ94
  S. tiagiiPP07
  S. trichopodaM99

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1–110.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. On the birds in the vicinity of Lima, Peru. With notes on their habits, by Prof. W. Nation, of Lima, C. M. Z. S. (Part I.) Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 96–100.

[U16] Ulbrich, E. 1916. Malvaceae andinae novae vel criticae imprimis Weberbauerianae. II. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 117): 48–77.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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