Siluriformes

 Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis, copyright Pablo Reyes Lobao-Tello.

Belongs within: Ostariophysi.
Contains: Auchenipteridae, Doradidae, Plotosidae, Siluridae, Claroteidae, Amphiliidae, Loricaroidei, Bagridae, Sisoroidea, Heptapteridae, Pimelodidae, Ictaluridae, Clariidae, Ariidae.

The Siluriformes are the catfishes, an order of scale-less fishes with distinctive barbels around the mouth. Catfishes include both freshwater and marine representatives, with the former being more diverse. Most authors have regarded the South American velvet catfish Diplomystes as the sister group of all other Siluriformes; Diplomystes and the fossil Hypsidoris farsonensis are the only catfish with a well-developed maxilla bearing teeth. Hypsidoris farsonensis is united with other Siluroidei by the presence of seventeen or fewer principal caudal rays, and an extension of lamellar bone over the ventral surface of the fifth centrum, which is in turn joined closely to the complex centrum (Diogo & Peng 2009).

Characters (from Bond 1996): True scales absent, skin bare or with bony plates which may bear dermal denticles. Subopercular, symplectic and parietal bones absent. Weberian apparatus of five or more vertebrae with second to fourth (or fifth) vertebrae fused. Barbels present around mouth. Premaxillary teeth present; maxillary teeth absent. Intermuscular bones absent. Pectoral and dorsal fins usually with large spines at leading edges; spines with locking mechanism holding them erect, often with associated venom glands. Adipose fin usually present.

Siluriformes [Nematognathi, Siluri, Siluroidiformes]
    |--Diplomystes [Diplomystidae, Diplomystoidei]DP09
    |    |  i. s.: D. mesembrinusSLH06
    |    |--D. camposensisDP09
    |    |--D. nahuelbutaensisDP09
    |    `--+--D. chilensisDP09 [=Diplomyste chilensisB96]
    |       `--D. viedmensisSL86 [=Olivaichthys viedmensisDP09]
    `--SiluroideiR-HH05
         |--Hypsidoris [Hypsidoridae, Hypsidoroidea]DP09
         |    `--H. farsonensis Lundberg & Case 1970DP09
         `--Siluroidea [Arioida]DP09
              |  i. s.: TitanoglanisDP09
              |         AustroglanisSLH06 [AustroglanididaeDP09]
              |         Lacantunia Rodiles-Hernández, Hendrickson et al. 2005R-HH05 [LacantuniidaeDP09]
              |           `--*L. enigmatica Rodiles-Hernández, Hendrickson et al. 2005R-HH05
              |         DoradoideaSLH06
              |           |--AuchenipteridaeSLH06
              |           `--DoradidaeDP09
              |         PlotosidaeSLH06
              |         Chaca [Chacidae]SLH06
              |           `--C. chacaM58
              |         SiluridaeSLH06
              |         0--ProeutropiusDP09
              |         `--PangasiidaeSLH06
              |              |--PangasianodonSLH06
              |              |    |--P. gigasB96
              |              |    `--P. hypophthalmusSLH07
              |              `--+--Helicophagus waandersiiSLH06
              |                 `--PangasiusSLH06
              |                      |--P. indicus von der Marck 1876P93
              |                      |--P. larnaudeiSLH06
              |                      |--P. sanitwongseiUSDI77
              |                      `--P. sutchiT07
              |         0--ClaroteidaeSLH06
              |         `--+--+--AmphiliidaeSLH06
              |            |  `--Malapterurus [Malapteruridae]SLH06
              |            |       |--M. beninensisSLH06
              |            |       |--M. electricusB96
              |            |       `--M. tanganyikaensisSLH06
              |            `--MochokidaeSLH06
              |                 |--+--Atopochilus savorgnaniSLH06
              |                 |  `--Euchilichthys dybowskiSLH06
              |                 `--+--MicrosynodontisSLH06
              |                    `--SynodontisSLH06
              |                         |--S. batesiiSLH06
              |                         |--S. melanostictusB50
              |                         `--S. victoriaeG74
              |--LoricaroideiDP09
              `--+--Cetopsidae [Cetopsinae]DP09
                 |    |--Hemicetopsis candiruF15
                 |    |--Helogenes [Helogenidae, Helogeninae]DP09
                 |    |    `--H. marmoratusSLH06
                 |    `--Cetopsis Agassiz 1929TP86
                 |         |--C. caecutiens (Lichtenstein 1819)TP86
                 |         `--C. candiruSLH06
                 `--+--+--BagridaeAS09
                    |  |--+--SisoroideaSLH06
                    |  |  `--+--Laides hexanemaSLH06
                    |  |     `--Ailia [Ailiinae]SLH06
                    |  |          `--A. coilaSLH06
                    |  `--HorabagridaeSLH06
                    |       |--Horabagrus brachysomaSLH06
                    |       |--PlatytropiusSLH06
                    |       `--PseudeutropiusSLH06
                    |            |--P. brachypopterusSLH06
                    |            `--P. garuaC01
                    `--+--PimelodoideaSLH06
                       |    |--+--HeptapteridaeDP09
                       |    |  `--Conorhynchos conirostrisDP09
                       |    `--+--PimelodidaeAS09
                       |       `--PseudopimelodidaeSLH06
                       |            |--Batrochoglanis raninusSLH06
                       |            `--PseudopimelodusSLH06
                       |                 |--P. bufoniusSLH06
                       |                 `--P. mangurusSLH06
                       `--+--IctaluroideaSLH06
                          |    |--IctaluridaeAS09
                          |    `--Cranoglanis [Cranoglanididae]SLH06
                          |         `--C. bouderiusNE12
                          `--+--ClarioideaSLH06
                             |    |--ClariidaeAS09
                             |    `--HeteropneustesAT05 [HeteropneustidaeDP09, Saccobranchidae]
                             |         `--H. fossilis (Bloch 1794)AT05 [=Saccobranchus fossilisB96]
                             `--ArioideaSLH06
                                  |--AriidaeAS09
                                  `--AnchariidaeSLH06
                                       |--AnchariusDP09
                                       `--Gogo Ng & Sparks 2005DP09
                                            `--G. arcuatusSLH06
Siluriformes incertae sedis:
  Andinichthys Gayet 1988 [Andinichthyidae]GM01
  OmpokB96
  Doiichthys [Doiichthyidae]M58
    `--D. novaeguineae Weber 1913M58
  Bucklandium diluvii König 1825M02
  Haustor catusD56
  Hypostomum plecostomumH04
  Hologenes [Hologeneidae]F15
    `--H. marmoratusF15
  Pygidiidae [Pygidiinae]F15
    |--Hatcheria areolataF15
    `--PygidiumF15
         |--P. disparF15
         |--P. poeyanum (Cope 1877) [=Trichomycterus poeyanus]F15
         `--P. rivulatum [incl. Trichomycterus pardus Cope 1874]F15
  Cyclopium [Cyclopiidae]F15
    |--*C. chimborazoi Fowler 1915F15
    |--C. cirratum (Regan 1912) [=Arges cirratus]F15
    `--C. sabaloF15
  Paulicea luetkeniC01
  Sorubimichthys planicepsC01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AT05] Agnese, J.-F., & G. G. Teugels. 2005. Insight into the phylogeny of African Clariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes): implications for their body shape evolution, biogeography, and taxonomy. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 546–553.

[AS09] Alfaro, M. E., F. Santini, C. Brock, H. Alamillo, A. Dornburg, D. L. Rabosky, G. Carnevale & L. J. Harmon. 2009. Nine exceptional radiations plus high turnover explain species diversity in jawed vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (32): 13410–13414.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[B50] Brooks, J. L. 1950. Speciation in ancient lakes (concluded). Quarterly Review of Biology 25: 131–176.

[C01] Chambrier, A. de. 2001. A new tapeworm from the Amazon, Amazotaenia yvettae gen. n., sp. n. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea) from the siluriform fishes Brachyplatystoma filamentosum and B. vaillanti (Pimelodidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 108 (2): 303–316.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[DP09] Diogo, R., & Z. Peng. 2009. State of the art of siluriform higher-level phylogeny. In: Grande, T., F. Poyato-Ariza & R. Diogo (eds) Gonorynchiformes and Ostariophysan Relationships: A Comprehensive Review pp. 465–515. Springer.

[F15] Fowler, H. W. 1915. Notes on nematognathous fishes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 203–243.

[GM01] Gayet, M., L. G. Marshall, T. Sempere, F. J. Meunier, H. Cappetta & J-C. Rage. 2001. Middle Maastrichtian vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, dinosaurs and other reptiles, mammals) from Pajcha Pata (Bolivia). Biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiostratigraphic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 169: 39–68.

[G74] Greenwood, P. H. 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Vistoria, East Africa: The biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Suppl. 6: 1–134.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: A check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[NE12] Near, T. J., R. I. Eytan, A. Dornburg, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, M. P. Davis, P. C. Wainwright, M. Friedman & W. L. Smith. 2012. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (34): 13698–13703.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R-HH05] Rodiles-Hernández, R., D. A. Hendrickson, J. G. Lundberg & J. M. Humphries. 2005. Lacantunia enigmatica (Teleostei: Siluriformes) a new and phylogenetically puzzling freshwater fish from Mesoamerica. Zootaxa 1000: 1–24.

[SL86] Schaefer, S. A., & G. V. Lauder. 1986. Historical transformation of functional design: evolutionary morphology of feeding mechanisms in loricarioid catfishes. Systematic Zoology 35 (4): 489–508.

[SLH06] Sullivan, J. P., J. G. Lundberg & M. Hardman. 2006. A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 636–662.

[T07] Tagami, K. 2007. Phoretic histiostomatid mites on the smoky-brown cockroach Periplaneta fuliginosa (Blattaria: Blattidae), contained unknown deutonymph of Histiostoma piscium (Astigmata, Histiostomatidae). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 249–255. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[TP86] Thinès, G., & G. Proudlove. 1986. Pisces. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 709–733. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[USDI77] United States Department of the Interior. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

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