Silvanidae

Silvanus lateritius, photographed by S. E. Thorpe.

Belongs within: Cucujoidea.

The Silvanidae are a group of elongate, more or less flattened beetles found living in leaf litter and under bark; several species are widely distributed as storage pests.

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Elongate, parallel-sided, more or less flattened, pubescent beetles with prognathous head, abruptly constricted posteriorly to form temples behind eyes, pronotum often with projecting front angles and/or dentate or crenulate lateral margins. Fore coxae globular, trochantins concealed, coxal cavities visibly closed behind; mid coxal cavities laterally open; tarsi four- or five-segmented, with setose lobes below; abdomen with five visible ventrites, two connate. Larvae elongate, parallel-sided and lightly sclerotised, with broad head, long antennae and legs, reduced 9th abdominal segment, and well-developed and terminal 10th segment.

<==Silvanidae [Silvaninae]
|–Silvanolomus armatulus (Blackburn 1891) [=Silvanus armatulus] H73
|–Austronausibius LB91
|–Nepharis LB91
|–Nepharinus LB91
|–Airaphilus nubigena [=Silvanus nubigena] H73
|–*Silvanops angulicollis [=Silvanus angulicollis] H73
|–Silvaninus H73
|–Coccidotrophus socialis RD77
|–Eunausibius wheeleri RD77
|–Ahasverus [incl. Leucohimatiops Heller 1923] L03
|    `–A. advena L03 [=Cathartus advena V09; incl. *Leucohimatiops javanus Heller 1923 L03]
|–Cathartoides Kessel 1921 H73
|    `–*C. africanus (Kessel 1921) (n. d.) [=Silvanus (*Cathartoides) africanus] H73
|–Calpus Halstead 1973 H73
|    `–*C. bacchi Halstead 1973 H73
|–Nausibius LB91
|    |–N. clavicornis LB91
|    `–N. latus [=Silvanus latus] H73
|–Cathartus H73
|    |–C. longulus Blatchley 1910 [incl. Silvanus parviceps Casey 1916] H73
|    `–C. quadricollis B70
|–Pensus Halstead 1973 H73
|    |–*P. gilae (Casey 1884) [=Silvanus gilae] H73
|    `–P. guatemalenus (Sharp 1899) [=Silvanus guatemalenus] H73
|–Silvanoides Halstead 1973 H73
|    |–*S. cheesmanae Halstead 1973 H73
|    `–S. foveicollis Halstead 1973 H73
|–Monanus LB91
|    |–M. albertesi [=Silvanus albertesi] H73
|    |–M. concinnulus LB91
|    |–M. longicornis [=Silvanus longicornis] H73
|    `–M. monticola (Blackburn 1891) [=Silvanus monticola] H73
|–Silvanoprus H73
|    |–S. birmanicus (Grouvelle 1892) [=Silvanus birmanicus] H73
|    |–S. frater (Grouvelle 1904) [=Silvanus frater] H73
|    |–S. orientalis [=Silvanus orientalis] H73
|    `–S. porrectus (Walker 1859) [=Silvanus porrectus] H73
|–Cathartosilvanus Grouvelle 1912 H73
|    |–*C. trivialis (Grouvelle 1878) [=Silvanus trivialis] H73
|    |–C. imbellis (LeConte 1854) [=Silvanus imbellis; incl. S. communis Grouvelle 1878] H73
|    |–C. tropicalis (Van Dyke 1953) [=Silvanus tropicalis] H73
|    `–C. vulgaris (Grouvelle 1878) [=Silvanus vulgaris] H73
|–Oryzaephilus B14
|    |–O. abeillei [=Silvanus abeillei] H73
|    |–O. aridulus [=Silvanus aridulus] H73
|    |–O. fauveli (Reitter 1890) [=Silvanus fauveli] H73
|    |–O. mercator (Fauvel 1889) B14
|    `–O. surinamensis B14
|–Protosilvanus Grouvelle 1912 H73
|    |–*P. lateritius (Reitter 1879) [=Silvanus lateritius] H73
|    |–P. carinatus (Grouvelle 1912) [=Silvanus (Protosilvanus) carinatus] H73
|    |–P. fasciatus Halstead 1973 H73
|    |–P. granosus (Grouvelle 1897) [=Silvanus granosus] H73
|    `–P. inaequalis (Grouvelle 1882) [=Silvanus inaequalis] H73
|–Parasilvanus Grouvelle 1912 H73
|    |–*P. ocellatus (Grouvelle 1889) [=Silvanus ocellatus] H73
|    |–P. fairmairei (Grouvelle 1882) [=Silvanus fairmairei; incl. S. filum Krantz 1895] H73
|    |–P. mimosae Halstead 1973 H73
|    |–P. oblitus (Grouvelle 1909) [=Silvanus oblitus] H73
|    |–P. pulcher (Grouvelle 1905) [=Silvanus pulcher] H73
|    `–P. tenuis (Grouvelle 1889) [=Silvanus tenuis] H73
`–Silvanus Latreille 1804 [=Leptus Duftschmidt 1823 non Latreille 1796; incl. Microsilvanus Grouvelle 1912] H73
|–*S. unidentatus (Olivier 1790) H73 (see below for synonymy)
|–S. bidentatus (Fabricius 1792) H73 (see below for synonymy)
|–S. castaneus MacLeay 1873 H73
|–S. difficilis Halstead 1973 H73
|–S. inarmatus Wollaston 1867 [incl. S. hebetatus Grouvelle 1912, S. quadraticollis Reitter 1876] H73
|–S. lateritius (Broun 1880) (see below for synonymy) H73
|–S. lewisi Reitter 1876 H73
|–S. mediocris Grouvelle 1889 H73
|–S. muticus Sharp 1899 H73
|–S. nitidulus LeConte 1854 H73
|–S. planatus Germar 1824 [incl. S. cognatus LeConte 1854, S. zimmermanni Guérin-Méneville 1844] H73
|–S. productus Halstead 1973 H73
|–S. proximus Grouvelle 1904 [incl. S. amabilis Grouvelle 1914] H73
|–S. recticollis Reitter 1876 (see below for synonymy) H73
|–S. robustus Halstead 1973 H73
|–S. rossi Halstead 1973 H73
|–S. semus Halstead 1973 H73
|–S. surinamensis C01
`–S. tetrahens Walker 1858 (n. d.) H73

Nomina nuda: Silvanus crenatulus Hetschko 1930 H73
Silvanus ornatulus Hetschko 1930 H73

Silvanus bidentatus (Fabricius 1792) H73 [=Dermestes bidentatus H73; incl. S. affinis Reitter 1876 H73, S. bidentatus var. affinis H73, Colydium sulcatum Fabricius 1792 H73, Lyctus sulcatus L02, Trogossita sulcata L02]

Silvanus lateritius (Broun 1880) [=Cryptamorpha lateritia non S. lateritius Reitter 1879 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)] H73

Silvanus recticollis Reitter 1876 [incl. Leucohimatium breve Wollaston 1873 (n. d.), S. (Microsilvanus) minimus Grouvelle 1912, S. (M.) pumilus Grouvelle 1912, S. reflexus Reitter 1880, S. vitulus Grouvelle 1882, S. (Microsilvanus) vitulus] H73

*Silvanus unidentatus (Olivier 1790) H73 [=Ips unidentata H73, Colydium (Silvanus) unidentatum G20, Dermestes unidentatus H73, Lyctus unidentatus L02; incl. Silvanus gratiosus Motschulsky 1863 H73, Colydium planum Herbst 1797 H73, S. siculus Stierlin 1864 H73]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H73] Halstead, D. G. H. 1973. A revision of the genus Silvanus Latreille (s. l.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology 29 (2): 39–112.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L03] Leschen, R. A. B. 2003. Erotylidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cucujoidea): phylogeny and review. Fauna of New Zealand 47: 1–108.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

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